>• Short of time: give some of the Review exercises for homework.
■ Do the first item with the class. Students then complete the exercise working individually.
■ Check students' answers by asking pairs of students to read aloud the original question and the reported question.
1 where my exchange partner lived 2 if/whether she often wrote to me 3 if/whether I was going to go in the summer 4 if/whether I would send her a postcard 5 what time the plane left 6 how long the flight was
■ Ask four students to read aloud the example to demonstrate how to play the game. Tell them that the answer should be only one or two words.
■ Students play the game in groups of four. They can have up to ten guesses before they give up and are told the answer. Monitor and check that students are reporting the questions correctly.
■ Read aloud the instructions and do the first item with the class.
■ Students complete the exercise, working individually or in pairs.
■ Check students' answers by asking pairs of students to read aloud both sentences in each item.
1 up 2 up 3 off 4 back 5 up 6 on
Pronunciation: Difficult Words
О Exercise 6
■ Play the recording several times for students to listen and repeat the words. Check that students use correct word stress.
■ Individual students in turn say the words without the recording and see if they can remember the pronunciation.
■ Students work in pairs, choosing three or four of the words and writing sentences containing the words. Monitor and help students correct any language errors.
■ The pairs then read aloud their sentences to the class.
■ Students use the Phonetic Chart to help them work out the proverb.
One man's meat is another man's poison.
■ As a whole class, students discuss what they think the proverb means (People have different likes and dislikes). Elicit examples where people have very different responses to things, e.g. ballet, modern art, eating meat, watching football.
Check Your Progress
■ Students look through the module and say which activities they enjoyed most and any they had problems with.
■ Students look through the grammar lessons and say if there are any areas they feel they need to revise.
1 in order to improve 2 Despite finding 3 come (to visit us) whenever you 4 before getting/he got 5 as soon as 6 so that he could 7 Although he loves
■ Students do the exercise working individually. Tell students there are no 'right' answers in this exercise.
■ Students then discuss their answer in small groups and see how similar or different their answers are. Tell students to explain to the rest of their group the reasons why certain words have positive or negative connotations for them.
■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences.
-: • students' attention to the Module Objectives and
:тет which activities they feel most confident : :>.T approaching and which they feel least confident : :ct Ask students to discuss how well they do some
activities (e.g. giving a presentation, talking scut history, civilisation and travel) in their LI.
* ~e capsules are collections of objects that people -.ж in metal boxes so that they can be found by .tjre generations. A recent example of a time capsule the Keo sphere which will be sent into space with: istructions for building a twenty-first-century DVD :<aver; pictures of human faces; a record of all human .э-guages and accumulated knowledge; a pinch of soil; з drop of ocean water; a sample of air; a drop of blood.
^■e Warm-up starts by a focus on a collection of Roman :bjects. Archeologists and historians learn about life in the past from simple everyday objects. From the objects i the photos you can learn that the people traded recause they had money. They had quite sophisticated pottery and plates. Their soldiers mainly used swords and shields. They had sophisticated artists and sculptors and a system of different gods and goddesses (e.g. Diana - goddess of hunting). They had writing but did not have modern Arabic numerals.
Extra information about Roman life:
Roman coins were made of silver and had the face of
the emperor on them and pictures, but no writing.
Bowls or amphoras were used for eating and storing food and wine. The Romans did not have knives and forks but used spoons.
Each Roman household had its own protecting spirits. The Romans had many different gods and adopted those from the places they conquered, especially from Greece.
Women wore jewellery as well as make up. Coloured stones and gold pendants were especially popular.
Two hundred thousand Latin inscriptions have been found. It is estimated that about thirty per cent of Roman men in the Empire could read and write.
The poor lived in small flats or rooms while the rich lived in large flats or villas. Oil lamps were used to light the houses of the rich. Villas often had mosaic floors with underground heating. Most houses did not have baths and Romans would go to public baths regularly.
■ Ask students to look at the pictures and see if they can identify which period of history they belong to (the Romans).
■ Read through the instruction with the class. Students work in pairs or small groups, discussing the objects in the pictures and what they tell us about the lives of the people. Monitor and help with vocabulary if necessary.
■ The groups then feed back to the class and see how much information can be learnt from the objects.
О Exercise 2
KEY WORDS: Everyday Objects
book, cash card, CD, coffee maker, electric kettle, a football, key ring, microwave oven, (computer) mouse, mobile phone, newspaper, palmtop computer, pizza carton, radio alarm clock, TV remote, walkman (personal stereo)
■ Check that students understand the meaning of time capsule. Ask them what they know about time capsules.
■ Give students time to read through the Key Words and check the meaning in the Mini-dictionary. Ask students which of the things they have got. Are there any they haven't got?
■ Play the recording, two or three times if necessary, for students to make a note of the things the two people select for the time capsule.
■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read out the items in the same order as on the recording. List the answers (1-10) on the board (students use the list in the Option activity).
1 newspaper 2 mobile phone 3 book 4 football 5 TV remote 6 CD 7 palmtop 8 coffee maker 9 pizza carton 10 radio alarm clock
Tapescript See page 149.
■ Ask students to listen to the recording again for the reasons why Pia and Robert choose the ten objects. Divide the class into two groups. One group listens for extra information about objects 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. The other group listens for extra information about objects 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Play the recording and then ask the groups to feed back to the class.
■ Students work in pairs, discussing and making a list of their ten objects and the reasons for choosing them.
■ The pairs can then form groups of four or six and tell the others their lists and their reasons for choosing the objects. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency. Make a note of any language problems to go over with the class afterwards.
■ The groups then report back to the class and see which objects were chosen by all of them.
■ Read aloud the instructions, questions and the example sentence. Elicit some of the periods of history and civilisation students would like to travel to. If appropriate, write the English phrases for these periods on the board. However, tell students not to worry about translating the names of periods from their own country's history into English.
■ Give students time to work individually, making notes of their answers to the questions. Help with vocabulary if necessary.
■ In groups or as a whole class, students give their answers to the questions and explain the reasons for their choices.
37 A Lost City-------------
■ To describe and speculate about a place in a photo.
■ To practise using adjectives to describe feelings.
■ To practise using reading strategies to complete word gaps in a text.
■ To read and understand an extract from a travel book.
■ To practise using verbs of movement.
■ To ask and answer questions to complete a history text.
Bingham 'discovered' the lost city of Machu Picchu in 1911. It had originally been an early capital of the Incas and because of its location in the mountains was one of the last places which the Incas held on to after the Spanish invasion. For over three hundred years, it decayed and was overgrown by forest. The ruins were only known about by the local Indians. Bingham's discoveries had a major impact on both archaeology and history though he left both fields.
Routes through the material
»- Short of time: give some exercises for homework, e.g. Exercises 6, 7 and 8.
»■ Plenty of time: do the Options.
>■ 2 classes for this lesson: break after Exercise 5.
Before you start
■ Students look at the photo and describe the place. Ask: How would you feel if you were there? What sounds do you think you would hear? What's the climate like there?
ш Read aloud the questions for students to discuss as a whole class. If you have a large world map, display it for students to see the location of Peru and other countries with famous historical sites.
■ Read the instructions and give students time to make a note of the historical sites in their country.
■ As a class, students list the historical sites in their country and say which they have visited. Encourage students to say what they saw and what their impressions and feelings were.
^ KEY WORDS: Adjectives л
amazed, bewildered, ecstatic, exhausted, impressed, indifferent, shocked, spellbound
■ Students read through the Key Words and check the meaning and pronunciation in the Mini-dictionary.
■ Students read the introduction and discuss which adjectives they think describe the explorer's feelings when he found the lost city.
amazed, bewildered, impressed, spellbound
■ Read through the Strategies with the class. Check that students remember what possessive adjectives are.
--------- Skills Focus-
■ Students read the extracts and complete the gaps, using the Strategies.
■ Remind them that there may be more than one possible answer.
■ Check answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences.
1 if 2 top 3 try 4 that/which 5 few 6 think 7 the 8 After/On 9 difficult/hard 10 like 11 be 12 front 13 than 14 did 15 had
■ Read through the sentences with the class and check that students understand the vocabulary.
■ Students work individually, reading the extracts again and marking the sentences true or false.
■ When checking answers, ask students to correct the false sentences.
IT 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 F (I was not in training.) 6 F (What could this place be?) 7T 8T 9T 10 T
■ Use the extracts for more study of adjectives. Ask students to look at the following phrases in the extracts and to suggest how to translate the adjectives into their LI: 1 an extraordinary life 2 the roaring rapids 3 dense jungle 4 a very steep slope 5 the heat was excessive.
Vocabulary: Verbs of Movement
■ Students match the verbs (1-7) with the definitions (a-g), referring to the extracts to see the verbs used in context.
■ When checking students' answers, also check pronunciation of the verbs.
■ Students translate the words into their own language.
If 2a 3d 4 e 5b 6g 7c
■ Students do the exercise working individually. They can compare answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.
■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences using the verbs from Exercise 7.
1 stroll 2 plunged 3 struggled up 4 crawled 5 climbed up
a Group students in A/B pairs. Each student reads their information about the Incas. Check that students understand the meaning of words that are given in both texts, e.g. empire, invaders, supreme ruler, a class of nobles, peasants, crops.
a In pairs, students ask and answer questions to complete the information. Tell them to spell words for their partne-
- -ecessary. Monitor and make a note of any common r^iculties to go over with the class afterwards. ■ ~te pairs can check their answers by comparing texts A
Is erase 10
• Ii groups, students discuss what they think were the -ost important things about the Incas. Each group -.akes a note of their main points to report back to the
• In turn, the groups tell the class what they think are the ~ost important things about the Incas.
■ If some of your students would like to find out more about the Incas, they could do this for homework and then make a class presentation in a later lesson.
■ To talk about photos of famous buildings.
■ To listen to a dialogue and check information about famous buildings.
■ To practise using wish and should have to express regret.
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