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Before you start

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  7. b) Answer the questions given before the text in written form.

Exercise 1

■ Students work in pairs, reading and answering the questions.

■ The pairs feed back to the class and see if there is general agreement.

■ Ask students if they think their generation use the same conventions and behaviour as their parents' or grandparents' generation.

Exercise 2

■ Students look at the photos and describe what the people are doing. Encourage students to guess the countries the people are from and say which photo could be of people from their own country (A people from a 'Latin' country using a lot of gestures, В British people shaking hands and С people from Japan bowing to each other).

О Exercise 3

■ As a class, students discuss how they would classify people from the different cultures, giving reasons for their choice. Encourage students to comment on the stereotypes that these cultures have in their country.

■ Play the recording for students to check their guesses.


Presenter: Good morning and welcome back to Culture Matters. Today, we're looking at different styles of communication in different cultures. We have Dr Jan Groot, from Utrecht University in Holland in the studio. Dr Groot, you explained earlier before the break about 'affective' and 'neutral' cultures. Could you give us some examples of which cultures are 'affective' or open, and which are 'neutral' or more reserved? Expert: Well, generally, people from 'Latin' cultures tend to show their feelings more, for example the Spanish or the Italians. In a survey, when asked if they would show that they were angry in more formal situations, 71% of Italians said they

would show this openly.

Presenter: And what about 'neutral' cultures?

Expert: Other cultures, oriental and northern European

cultures, don't show emotions as much, they are more

reserved. For example, only 17% of the Japanese would show

anger openly in formal situations. And only 29% of British

people would show they were angry.

Presenter: Thafs interesting.

Expert: But curiously enough, the Americans are more like the Italians. Over 60% would express anger openly in a work situation or a format situation. Culturally, Americans are in between 'neutral' and 'affective' cultures - in some ways they are more open and in other ways they are more reserved. Presenter: And so what differences are there in the way people actually express themselves, using gestures and that sort of thing?

Expert: Well, people from 'affective' cultures, like the Italians, tend to use a lot more gestures, you know, using not only their hands but their arms. For people in more neutral cultures, like the Japanese, Northern Europeans and even Americans sometimes, this could appear 'excitable'. They don't use gestures as much. Presenter: Mm, yes.

Expert: Also, people from 'affective' cultures usually look more directly at the person they are speaking to. The British or Americans often look at people to start with and then look away. People from oriental cultures like Japan, never look directly at the other person; to look at someone very directly is extremely rude.

Presenter: And what about speaking? Expert: Right, well people from 'affective' cultures are more likely to interrupt or even speak at the same time as the other person. In 'neutral' cultures, there is usually less interruption - one person starts speaking when the other has stopped. In a place like Japan, however, people never interrupt. They also wait or pause for a while before speaking, so there is more silence during a conversation.

Presenter: Finally, what about politeness. What differences a* there?

Expert: Well, Japanese and British people are more formal than Americans and people from Latin cultures. British people tend to say please, thank you and Гт sorry more often. In Britain, ifs very important to say please and thank you, ever for the smallest things. If you don't, it sounds very rude. In some other cultures, like Latin cultures, to say please and thank you all the time sounds a bit 'false'. Presenter: I see. Well, thank you very much, Dr Groot. That was fascinating, but I'm afraid we'll have to stop there. Tomorrow, we'll be ...

О Exercise 4

■ Give students time to study the table and see what information they need to listen for to complete it. Che: < that students remember the differences in meaning between always, often, usually, sometimes, rarely and never.

я Play the first part of the interview again for students tr complete the 'show anger in formal situations' information in the table.

■ Continue playing the recording for students to complex the table. Explain that the speaker sometimes uses the same word as in the exercise (e.g. never) but sometir-e students will have to choose a word to match the speaker's meaning.

Italians British Japanese Americans
71% 29% 17% 60%
often sometimes sometimes sometimes
usually often (start) never often (start)
often rarely never rarely
sometimes always always sometimes


■ Students work in pairs, deciding how they would complete the table for people from their country.

■ The pairs feed back to the class and see if there is general agreement.

w Exercise 5

■ Read aloud the instructions. Give students time to read through the prompts (1-4) and the answers (a-h).

■ Play the recording once for students to get a general understanding of each situation and complete some of the answers.

■ Then play the recording again, twice if necessary, for students to complete the exercise.


Answers 2d 3a 4c Tapescript See page 148.

1 b, g 2 d, h 3 a, e 4 c, f

Tapescript See page 148.

О Option

■ Play the recording of dialogues 2 and 3 again and ask more detailed questions. Dialogue 2: Have they been canoeing before? (Yes) Do you think the boy and the other girt like canoeing? (Yes) How do you think the other girl continues the conversation? (Or how about ... going for a bike ride/going swimming). Dialogue 3: What's the woman's name? (Mrs Davis) What does she call Christina? (dear) When can she give her a lift? (in ten minutes) What does she say when Christina thanks her? (Ifs no trouble. Any time).

Exercise 6

■ Students work in pairs, matching the expressions in the Function File with the uses (a-h).

■ Check students' answers. Encourage students to say the expressions politely.


le 2d 3b 4 f 5 h 6a 7g 8c

О Exercise 7

■ Students listen and repeat the expressions, paying particular attention to the intonation so that they sound polite.

О Exercise 8

■ Read aloud the instruction and the four ways (a-d) of being impolite and rude.


■ Play the recording of the first dialogue and look at the answer (b) with the class.

■ Continue playing the recording for students to match the other reasons for sounding rude with the dialogues.


Exercise 9

■ Read the Strategies with the class. Ask two or three students to choose and say an expression from the Function File with polite intonation.

■ Give students time to read through the roleplay situations (1-6).

■ Group students in pairs and give them time to use the Strategies to prepare for the roleplays.

■ Students act out their roleplays in pairs, taking turns to play each part. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency. Make a note of any general problems to go over with the class afterwards.

■ Some of the pairs can choose one of the situations to act out for the class.

Vocabulary: Multi-part Verbs (9)О Exercise 10

■ Students do the exercise working individually and then compare their answers in pairs.

■ Students listen to the dialogue and check their answers.

■ After checking students' answers, ask two or three pairs of students to read the dialogue aloud.


1 back 2 off 3 up 4 up 5 on 6 up with

Exercise 11

■ Do the activity once with a student, reading through the dialogue and changing the information in italics.

■ Students then practise the dialogue in pairs, changing the information in italics.

■ Some of the pairs can say one of their dialogues for the class to hear.

quote ... шеиот

■ Read the quote with the class and ask students if they agree. Elicit suggestions for how to teach students to understand the culture and people of another country as well as to speak their language.

НШб f

36 Communication Workshops


■ To describe a photo, speculating about the situations and people and relating it to personal experience.

■ To practise using listening strategies to identify style.

■ To act out roleplays and assess politeness.

■ To practise writing a personal letter.

■ To practise using linking words.

Resources used

Cassette/CD, Writing Help 9. Routes through the material

>- Short of time: give some of the writing exercises for homework.

>■ Plenty of time: do the Options.

>■ Two classes for this lesson: break after Speaking Talkback.


Before you start Exercise 1

■ Read through the instructions with the class. Elicit in general terms what is happening in each photo.

■ In pairs, students choose a photo to describe and answer the questions about it. Monitor and help with vocabulary where necessary.

■ With the whole class, find out which students have been in each situation. Encourage them to tell the rest of the class what happened.

Exercise 2

■ Read through the Strategies with the class. Elicit more examples of contractions {I'll, He's), informal words (e.g. OK/How are you doing?) and formal words (e.g. Excuse те/How do you do) from the students.

■ Students look at the photos (A-D) and discuss which situations they would expect to hear formal language in. Explain that informal English is used in a wider range of situations in the UK nowadays than before. Ask students if the same is true with their LI

Suggested answers

A and В

D Exercise 3

■ Read aloud the instruction. Give students time to read through the situations. Play the recording once and see if students have matched the dialogues with the situations. If necessary, play the recording again.


lb 2 f 3c 4a 5 d 6g

Tapescript 1

Tomek: Hello, my name's ...

Mrs Thompson: Hello, come in. You must be Tomek. The language school told me you'd be coming. Come up and I'll show you the room.

Mrs Thompson: The room's up here. Ifs got plenty of light and a nice view, hasn't it? The bathroom's at the end of the passage. Sorry, but you'll share with my two kids. Tomek: Thafs great. And you provide breakfast and an evening meal, don't you?

Mrs Thompson: Thafs right. Half board. The school told you

the price, didn't they? You can have a key and come in

whenever you want - if you're quiet!

Tomek: Yes, ifs fine. Just one thing, Mrs Thompson?

Mrs Thompson: Yes, Tomek.

Tomek: Where can I do my washing?

Mrs Thompson: Oh, I'll do that for you. With both my kids at

home the washing machine's on every day! Ifs included in the


Tomek: Thafs great, Mrs Thompson. Well, I'll go and ... 2

Tomek: Excuse me, Mrs Thompson. Could you pass me the butter, please?

Mrs Thompson: Yes, certainly, love. Tomek: Thanks.

Mrs Thompson: You're welcome. By the way, Tomek, call me

Carol. You're at home here.

Tomek: Right, Mrs Tho..., I mean, Carol.

Tomek: Er, right, madam. I want to change some euros into pounds.

Woman: Yes, certainly. The exchange rates are up there. We

don't charge commission.

Tomek: Good. You must change 150 euros.

Woman: Certainly. Have you got any identification, please? A

passport, perhaps?

Tomek: Yes, here you are.

Woman: Thank you.

Tomek: So, Juan, do you fancy doing something this weekend?

Juan: Sure, why not? Ifs our first weekend in London! I'd like to go to one of those clubs I've heard so much about. Tomek: Mm, I'd prefer a pub. I've heard they've got live music. Juan: Yeah, OK, lefs do both. First a pub, then a club!

Tomek: Excuse me. Woman: Yes?

Tomek: We're looking for the Red Lion pub.

Woman: Oh, right, love. Ifs up this road. Third turning on the

left. Go under the bridge and ifs on the right next to the


Tomek: So, third on the left ...

Tomek: Excuse me, Mr Thompson. Do you think I could have a word with you? Mrs Thompson is out. Mr Thompson: Yes, of course.

Tomek: Well, do you think you could answer a question I've got about English? Mr Thompson: Fire away. Tomek: Sorry?

Mr Thompson: 'Fire awa/. It means ask me a question. Tomek: Oh, right. Well, whafs a 'posh' restaurant? Posh isn't in my dictionary.

Mr Thompson: A posh restaurant? It means stylish, elegant, probably expensive. Tomek: Ah, right. Thanks.


■ After checking answers, elicit expressions to say at the doctor's when the doctor asks: What's the matter? Revise vocabulary, e.g. I've got stomach ache/ earache/a temperature/a sore throat/a bad back.

О Exercise 4

■ Give students time to read through the questions. Play the recording several times if necessary for students to answer the questions.

■ Check students' answers. When answering question 3, write on the board what Tomek says and what he should say.

- ^al; dialogues 1 and 3; informal: dialogues 4 and 5 лзгт formal and continue informally: dialogues 2 and 6

sounds rude in the bank (dialogue 3). He says: a) Er


- madam b) I want to change c) You must change. He «xJ say: a) Good morning/afternoon b) I'd like to change : Could you change/I'd like to change

• -.cents discuss the correct way to formally address an Юег person that you know (Answer: Mr Jones/Mrs

: es/Ms /тэг/ Jones). Point out that we never say Mrs/Mr. Sir/Madam is used to customers/clients in - ~<al service situations e.g. hotel/restaurant/shop.


• Give students practice in listening for specific nformation. Write topics on the board. Play the 'ecording for students to listen for information about

the topics:

Dialogue 1: Bathroom? (at end of passage/share with

two children); Washing? (Mrs Thompson does it)

Dialogue 2: What does Tomek want? (the butter)

Dialogue 3 Identification? (passport)

Dialogue 4 Where are they going? (to a pub then a


Dialogue 5 Name of pub? (the Red Lion)

Dialogue 6 Meaning of 'fire away' (ask me a question)

and 'posh' (stylish, elegant, probably expensive)


Ueplays '.-оде 1

• Read through the instructions and situations (1-8) with the class. Students discuss how formal or informal each situation is.

• Students work individually, preparing what to say in each situation and practising saying them politely. Monitor and hear individual students practise what they are going to say.

Stage 2

■ Students work in pairs, acting out the situations and changing parts. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency. Make a note of any general problems to go over with the class afterwards.


ш Give students time to think about how polite their partner was in the different roles. In turn, students tell the class their assessment. Encourage students to support their assessment by giving examples of language their partner used.


■ Students who were assessed as 'very polite' can act out their roleplay again for the class.


Before you start Exercise J

■ Read the instruction and check that students understand what to do. Read aloud the first paragraph of the letter and elicit the question that Sonia asked (How are you?).

ш Students work individually or in pairs, reading the letter

carefully and writing a question for each reply that Suzanne gives.

■ Check students' answers by asking pairs of students to read out the question and the reply to it. Tell students that the questions can be worded in different ways.

Suggested answers

1 How are you? 2 What present can I get for your mum and dad? 3 What can I get for you? 4 What clothes shall I bring/do you advise me to bring? 5 Where are we going to go?

Exercise 2

■ Read through the headings with the class. Students work individually, reading the letter and matching the headings with the paragraphs.


1 introduction (chat/questions) 2 some advice 3 plans for the trip 4 finishing off

Exercise 3

■ Students look at the underlined linking words in the letter and match them with their meaning. Students can compare answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.

■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentence from the letter and replace the underlined word with the matching word.

whatever - anything wherever - anywhere whoever -
anybody whenever - anytime


Exercise 4

■ Students work individually, reading and completing the sentences.

■ Check answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences.


1 Whoever 2 whenever 3 wherever 4 Whatever

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