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A 'For and Against' Essay

я Read through the titles with the class. Refer students to Writing Help 7 on page 143 and, if you have time, read through the sections on Layout and Useful Vocabulary.

Verbs followed by the ingform or infinitive

Language Problem Solving 7



This Language Problem Solving deals with verb patterns: verb + (object) + infinitive/-wg form. Students need to be referred to the Mini-dictionary and the Mini-grammar where the list of verbs following a particular pattern will be provided.

Students also need to realise that this area of grammar requires learning by heart rather than understanding concepts.

Mini-grammar: 14.3, 14.4

Exercise 1

■ Students read the text silently to find out what strategies this student uses to learn English. (Answer: He/She learns vocabulary by listening to songs, writing the words down, looking up words in the dictionary and asking his/her teacher.)

и Encourage students to use the context to guess the meaning of new words or phrases, e.g. get stuck.

ш Ask students if they have tried to write down the words of an English song and, if so, what they found most difficult.

■ Give students time to think about the strategies they use to learn English. Students then report back to the class and see what strategies most of them find helpful.

Exercise 2

■ Read aloud the instructions and look at the example entries in the table with the class.

■ Students work individually or in pairs, using the Mini- dictionary to check the verb patterns and completing the table with the verbs from the text.

■ Write the headings of the table on the board. Check students' answers by asking individuals to complete the entries in the table on the board.


verb + 'to' + infinitive: need to (look up), offer to (work), fail to (get), refuse to (listen), help

verb + object + to + infinitive: helps me to (understand),

advise you to (listen), need

verb + object + infinitive: makes me (listen),

verb + -ing form: enjoy (learning), don't mind (listening),

suggest (listening), risk (learning), need, advise, make

■ Read through the list of verbs with the students and check that students understand the meaning (e.g. deny, tend). Students work in pairs or individually, referring to the Mini-dictionary and writing the verbs in the table.


I to come 2 hiking 3 going 4 to find 5 to put б sailing 7 being 8 to stay 9 cooking 10 to be

II staying 12 to pay 13 to stay 14 meeting 15 to go


■ Encourage students to make more sentences giving information and advice to tourists planning to have a holiday in their country, e.g. when to come, where to go/stay, what to eat/see/buy.

Exercise 4

■ If you wish, do the first item with the class. Students then complete the exercise working individually.

■ Check answers by asking individuals to read out the complete sentences.


la, b 2c 3a 4 b, с 5b 6 b, с 7a 8b


■ Students look at Exercise 4 and make sentences using the verbs that were not correct, e.g. gave up in sentence 1.

Exercise 5

■ Read through the list of verbs with the class. If you wish, say one or two example sentences about yourself.

■ Students work individually, completing the sentences. Monitor, helping with vocabulary if necessary and pointing out any errors to be corrected.

■ Students then work in small groups, reading each other's sentences and checking the verb patterns.

■ Some of the students can read out their sentences to the class.

Exercise 6

■ Read through the list of verbs and the example sentence with the class.

■ Students choose six of the verbs and write sentences about things that happened to them this week. Monitor and point out any language errors for students to correct.

■ In pairs, students read each other's sentences.

■ Each student chooses one of their sentences to read aloud to the class.




verb + to + infinitive: afford, agree, arrange, ask, choose,

decide, expect, learn, manage, plan, promise, tend

verb + object + to + infinitive: ask, expect, choose, plan (e.g.

plan something to do in the evening)

verb + object + infinitive: let

verb + -ing form: admit, avoid, can't stand, consider, deny, give up, learn, practise

Exercise 3

■ Students do the exercise working individually and referring to the Mini-dictionary. Students can compare answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.

■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read the text aloud.

"Jture Corner 7



■ -- students to look at and talk about the two photos . M to decide, giving reasons, which is a British school тс ortrich is an American school.

• aloud the instruction and list of topics. Before talents read the text, encourage them to guess some of -те iformation that might be in the text, using their

: • i background knowledge about UK and US schools.

• -_3ents then read the text silently to find out which rxncs are mentioned. Tell students not to worry about .■nderstanding everything at this stage but to try and ;[5]ess the meaning of any new words that seem to be the ■ere important ones.


-c.ects, universities, exams, fees, violence

5 Most students borrow money_______ a bank which

they have to pay_______ . (from, back)

6 State universities are run_______ the individual state.


7 The setting______ of a national curriculum has raised

standards, (up)

■ Students can refer to the text to check their answers.

■ Ask individuals to read aloud the complete sentences.

Exercise 4

■ Give students time to think about their answers and to make notes about the pros and cons of studying in each country.

■ As a class or in groups, students discuss their answers and their reasons.

Comparing Cultures

■ Read through the instructions with the class. Either decide student grouping yourself or let students chose their own groups. Allow time in class and/or at home for students to prepare for the discussion. Be available to help with vocabulary, if necessary.

■ Monitor the group discussions but do not interrupt students' fluency.

■ The groups then feed back to the class. If necessary, go over any common language problems with the class.



Suggested answers

similarities: majority of schools are free state schools; compulsory education from five to sixteen; have exams; discipline and violence problems

differences: UK has national curriculum, USA does not; more private universities in USA; three stages of UK education (primary, secondary, sixth form), 12 grades divided into elementary and high school in USA; UK university students borrow money from a bank and have to pay it back, in USA tuition fees are quite low.


Exerase 3

■ Students work individually or in pairs, finding the words in the text and then finding the nearest British equivalents.

■ After checking answers, ask students if there are near- equivalent terms in their own educational system.


elective - optional subjects; elementary school - primal- grade - year; high school diploma - GCSE


■ Ask students to cover the text. Write gapped

sentences on the board for students to complete:

1 Most of the private schools were set________ by

religious groups, (up)

2 Education is compulsory______ five______ sixteen

years of age. (from, to)

3 If pupils stay_______ at school, they take 'A' level

exams, (on)

4 About 40% of pupils go_______ to higher education.


Review 7




■ To check and consolidate grammar studied in Module 7: conditionals, verbs followed by -ing form or infinitive, multi-part verbs.

■ To revise key vocabulary-, verbs (get, have, make, take), multi-part verbs.

■ To practise pronunciation of diphthongs /ю/, /еэ/, /эи/.

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