• lead through the examples with the class and point out r>e different prefixes that are used.
■ Students read the text about Peter and use prefixes to тике opposites of the adjectives. Students refer to the -ini-dictionary if necessary.
• Стеск students' answers by asking individuals to read a-oud the sentences and change the adjectives to their rpposites.
rsorganised unreliable unsociable insensitive intolerant --interested unaware unkind unsympathetic unhelpful patient dissatisfied
■ Elicit suggestions for how each situation might be resolved, e.g. the teenager promises to phone the parents if he/she is going to be late again. Work through one of the situations with the class, eliciting what the teenager and parent say and building up the complete conversation. If necessary, do another example roleplay with the whole class before students work in pairs.
■ Students work in pairs, taking turns to be a parent and a teenager and acting out the three situations. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency. Make a note of any general language problems to go over with the whole class afterwards.
■ Some of the pairs can act out one of the situations for the class.
■ Encourage students to discuss what they felt they did well and what they found most difficult in the roleplays. Ask students if it was easier to act the part of a parent or the part of a teenager. Give your own evaluation and go over any general language point that you made a note of when monitoring the pairwork.
• Give students time to read through the statements and decide if a parent or a teenager said them.
• If students disagree about the answers, ask them to give reasons for their answers. For example, sentence 3 could be said by a parent who didn't know the teenager has invited a friend for dinner or it could be said by a teenager whose parent has bought a concert ticket for them on the same evening as the school disco.
1 parent 2 teenager 3 parent 4 teenager 5 teenager 6 teenager 7 parent (mother)
■ Students do the matching exercise working in pairs.
■ When checking answers, encourage students to describe the situation they are thinking of if they disagree, e.g. sentence 3 could be said by a parent in situation с or by a teenager in situation b.
a 2, 5 b 4, 7 с 1, 3, 6
■ Students work in small groups discussing more reasons to support the parent's and/or teenager's point of view in each of the three situations (a-c).
■ The groups tell the class their ideas and see how many different reasons they have thought of. Write any new vocabulary on the board for students to refer to in Exercise 9.
22 People Watching
■ To practise using modals for speculation.
■ To speculate about people in photos and about classmates.
In this lesson we present modal verbs used for speculating (must, could, may, might, can't, couldn't) and their uses: must - a strong conviction that something is/was true; can't, couldn't - a strong conviction that something is/was not true; may, might, could - a possibility that something is/was true; may not, might not - a possibility that something is/was not true.
We also draw students' attention to the types of infinitives that can be used after these modal verbs and differences in their usage: ordinary infinitive (She might know them) is used to speculate about unlimited present time; progressive infinitive (She might be snorkelling) is used to speculate about things going on at the moment of speaking; perfect infinitive (He might have fallen asleep) is used to speculate about the past.
Troubleshooting: Students may use can to speculate, with the same meaning as may.
Routes through the material
»■ Short of time: give some of the exercises for homework, e.g. Exercises 7, 8 and 9; shorten the discussion in Exercise 1.
»■ Plenty of time: do the Options.
>■ 2 classes for this lesson: break after Exercise 6.
Before you start Exercise 1
■ Read aloud the questions. Encourage students to guess the meaning of nosey.
m In pairs, students discuss the questions. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency.
■ If time, students can then discuss the questions as a whole class.
■ Ask students to look at the two photos of people on this page. Encourage students to say what is happening and to imagine things about the people's lives and their relationships.
О Exercise 2
■ Advise students to read through the conversation quickly to get an idea of the situation. Students work individually or in pairs, trying to complete the gaps.
■ Play the recording for students to listen and check their guesses.
1 rich 2 famous 3 yacht 4 worried 5 sharks б asleep
■ Use the recording for reading aloud and pronunciation practice for the students. Play the recording for students to quietly join in the dialogue with the speakers. Encourage students to copy the stress and intonation patterns of the speakers.
■ In pairs, students practise reading aloud the dialogue, taking turns to be Speaker A and Speaker B. Monitor and correct any serious pronunciation errors.
■ Students read the dialogue again and complete the gaps with the modal verbs.
■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read the sentences aloud. Draw students' attention to the different infinitive forms after the modals.
1 must 2 could 3 may 4 might 5 may not 6 might 7 can't 8 might not 9 must 10 might 11 can't
■ As a whole class, students discuss the meaning of the sentences in Exercise 3 and decide if they express derision, advice or speculation.
■ Ask students how they would express decision (e.g. I'm going to/I'll do it) and advice (e.g. You should/ought to do it) in English.
■ Students work in pairs, reading the sentences in Exercise 3 again and deciding which modal verbs express the meanings in the table.
strong conviction/not true: can't possibility/true: could, might, may. possibility/not true: may not, might not.
■ As a whole class, students discuss what the sentences (1-3) are referring to and match them to the descriptions (a-c).
lb 2c 3a
■ Students do the exercise working in pairs.
|■ After checking answers, ask students to make the sentences for the alternative answers, e.g. for 1 a, the sentence could be I'm sure that they haven't forgotten about our wedding.|
■ Check answers by asking pairs of students to read out the sentence and paraphrase.
lb 2a 3a 4b
ii erase 8
• Iheck students' answers by asking individuals to read the sentences aloud. If students disagree about an answer, encourage them to discuss how certain they think the speaker is about what they are saying, e.g. in sentence :" does the speaker think it is almost certain (or not very kely) that people who 'often go abroad' work for the Secret Service?
■ Ask three students to read aloud the example sentences about Guiseppe, Carla and Massimo.
■ Give students time to think about who they are going to speculate about and what they are going to say.
■ Students then work as a class or in groups, making speculations about their classmates.
1 might not 2 may 3 could 4 can't 5 must 6 might
■ Write these situations on the board: 1A young woman is standing beside a motorbike at the side of the road. She's talking to a police officer.
2 A smartly-dressed businessman is in his office. He's got a black eye and a broken arm.
3 A small child is crying in the middle of a busy shopping street.
In pairs, students speculate about the past and the present in each situation, e.g. 1 The motorcyclist must have broken down. The policeman might phone a garage to come and help, и The pairs then exchange their ideas as a whole class.
■ Students do the exercise working individually and then compare answers in pairs before checking answers as a
■When checking students' answers, ask individuals to read out both sentences for each item.
1 must be relaxing 2 might have arrived 3 can't have failed 4 might not like 5 can't be 6 may be living 7 must have lied 8 might not have won
■ Ask one of the students to read aloud the example sentences about photo C. ('Charity shops' are found almost everywhere in the UK, raising funds for charities by selling second hand clothes and other items.) Encourage students to make more sentences about the woman in the photo. Ask questions to prompt them, if necessary, e.g. Where does she live? How often doe she come here? What sort of work did she do? What is she thinking?
■Students work individually, making notes of their speculations about each person's present and past. Help students with vocabulary if necessary but encourage them to try and express their ideas using the English they already know. For example, if students have forgotten the word widow, they can say Her husband is dead/She was married but her husband died ten years ago.
• Students compare their ideas with a partner.
■ Give students more practice by asking them to speculate about the person/people in another photo from an earlier module (or from magazines you have brought to the lesson).
■ In small groups, students take turns to show and talk about their picture. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency. Go over any language difficulties with the class afterwards.
■ To practise using multi-part verbs.
■ To practise using personality adjectives.
a To practise using listening strategies for true/false questions.
■ To practise describing people.
■ To practise using always and the Present Continuous.
■ To distinguish between to look like, to like and to be like.
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