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■ Read the quote with the class. Point out the use of the verbs be and have (a personality). Remind students that Lucy's friend says Lucy has a lovely personality. Encourage students to guess the meaning of to be a personality (to be a celebrity/famous). Ask students if they can think of celebrities who don't seem to have much personality and celebrities who do seem to have a personality.


■ To use strategies to speculate about photos.

■ To listen to and understand the main information in a radio programme.

■ To read and then write a description of a person.

■ To practise using linking expressions to give examples.

Resources used

Cassette/CD, Writing Help 6. Troubleshooting

Advise any students who don't find it easy to use their 'imagination' about people in photos to follow the ideas in the Strategies and then they will have plenty to talk about.

Routes through the material

»• Short of time: give some of the Writing Workshop for homework.

>- Plenty of time: do the Options.

>■ 2 classes for this lesson: break after the Listening Workshop.


Before you start Exercise 1

■ Read the Strategies with the class. Revise past and present modals to use when speculating about photos. Remind students of the usefulness of question tags, e.g. The boy looks kind, doesn't he?

Exercise 2

■ As a class, students discuss what else they could speculate about when discussing photos. List the points on the board and advise students to copy them into their notebooks for future reference, together with the points in the Strategies. Suggestions could include:

the people - family? friends? hobbies and interests? what are they saying or thinking? how are they feeling? the place - country? what sort of town/street/building? what year/season/time of day? does the person come here regularly or is it the first time?

Discussing a Photo Stages 1-2

я In Stage 1, students work individually, using the Strategies to prepare for the discussion about the two photos. Encourage students to rely on using the English they know. If necessary, help individuals with essential new vocabulary.

■ In Stage 2, students work in pairs, using the questions to guide their discussion of the photos. Encourage students to discuss other points about the people and the place. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency. Make a note of any general problems or errors to go over with the class afterwards.


я Ask two students to read aloud the example exchange.

■ Students form groups of four and compare the results of their discussions.

KMt b 24 Communication Workshops

■ The groups then report back to the class and find out how many different ideas they had.


■ Bring to the lesson a selection of photos, newspaper and magazine pictures, etc. Each pair of students chooses a picture to discuss.

■ If time, each pair shows the class the picture and reports the main points of their discussion.


Before you start Exercise 1

■ Elicit two or three names of 'geniuses' from the class. Encourage students to discuss the meaning of genius.

я Students then work in pairs, adding names to make a list of ten people.

■ The pairs tell the class the names on their list. Students see how many different people they thought of and say if they agree that they were geniuses.

Exercise 2

■ Read aloud the categories for students to repeat after you and pay attention to correct word stress.

■ Elicit two or three names from students' lists for each category. Encourage students to discuss which categories seem to have most geniuses and which have fewer.

A Radio Programme О Exercise 3

■ Give students time to read through the list of names.

■ Play the recording once for students to listen for the people mentioned. Suggest they tick off the names of these people in the list. Then play the recording again for students to check that the other names are those of people who are not mentioned.

■ When checking answers, tell students not to worry about using English pronunciation of the names of the people.


Shakespeare, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Copernicus, Aristotle, Newton


Presenter: Welcome to Living History. This is the second in our series about great people from history. In this week's programme we ask the question: 'What makes a genius?' To discuss this we have in the studio two guests, the historian Dr Marlene Hofmeyer from Munich University ... Dr Hofmeyer: Good evening.

Presenter: And we also have the journalist Carlo Rossi who has just published a book called Genes and Genius. Rossi: Hello.

Presenter: Right lefs get straight to the point. Are geniuses born or are they made? Dr Hofmeyer? Dr Hofmeyer: Well, in my opinion, genes combined with experiences and influences in early life are cruciaL You see, what happens in the first few years is absolutely vital. In fact ... in fact a lot of geniuses show their brilliance as children. I mean, look at composers like Mozart or Chopin for example. We all know about Mozart but did you know that Chopin started composing at the age of six? And he gave his first public concert when he was only eight! And there are quite a few other examples of brilliant musicians like that. Rossi: Yes, I agree with you there. The first few years of someone's life can show if they are a genius. But this is not always the case. Look at Einstein. He was not a particularly good student at school. And there are other examples. In my opinion, Winston Churchill was a political genius. But he was a terrible student at school... Rather like me. Dr Hofmeyer: Yes, right, right... but going back to the ... the

question. Very few geniuses or exceptionally talented people had parents who were geniuses. Most were from ordinary families. And there aren't many children of geniuses either who are geniuses themselves, are there? Rossi: That's right but there are quite a few cases of families that were incredibly talented and creative, aren't there? I mean, just look at the Bach and Strauss families in music. You also get examples of brilliant brothers and sisters, don't you? Look at the Bronte sisters. All three of them wrote poetry and novels. Charlotte and Emily are the most famous but Anne was also a brilliant writer. In feet, did you know that the three sisters...?

Dr Hofmeyer: Yes, yes. But lefs get back to the point ... Rossi: Another interesting fact is that many geniuses in the past died young. Look at Mozart and Chopin who we mentioned before. And the Brontes... they all died before they got to the age of 40, didn't they? I hope the same doesn't happen to me.


Dr Hofmeyer: Yes, I know they did. But we're getting off the point, aren't we? I think we first need to actually define what we really mean ... what we mean by genius. Presenter: Yes, how can we define what a genius is? Dr Hofmeyer: In my opinion, a genius is someone who ...

«/ Exercise 4

■ Give students time to read through the sentences (1-10).

■ Play the recording, twice if necessary, for students to listen and match the sentences with the people.


1H 2 В 3 R 4 R 5 H 6R 7R 8R 9R 10 H

«/ Option

■ Write on the board: Chopin the Bronte sisters Students listen to the recording again and make a note of the information the speakers give about these geniuses.


Chopin: started composing at the age of six, gave his first public concert when he was eight, died young. The Bronte sisters: all three (Charlotte, Emily, Anne) wrote poetry and novels, Charlotte and Emily are the most famous, all died before they got to the age of 40.


Before you start

Exercise 1

■ Read aloud the topics. Students work individually, reading the description and matching the topics and paragraphs.

Exercise 2

■ Students work in pairs, discussing which of the underlined linking expressions give examples.


especially such as for example particularly

■ After checking answers, ask students to look at the other underlined words and identify the functions (but - contrast, also - addition, because - reason).


■ The text about Alice is suitable for students to read aloud to practise pronunciation, stress and intonation. Choose individual students in random order to read one or two sentences aloud. Try to ensure that every student reads at least once.

Describing a Person Stage I

m Each student decides who to write about. Tell them it can be a person they know or someone famous.

Stage 2

■ Read through the notes with the whole class. Draw students' attention to the layout of the diagram and the notes for each topic.

■ Refer students to Writing Help 6 on page 142 for useful vocabulary for describing people.

Stage 3

и Refer students back to the text about Alice to remind them of the content of the three paragraphs.

■ Students write three paragraphs about their person, using the guidance on layout and linking in Writing Help 6.

■ Students check their writing for mistakes and refer to Writing Help 6 (checking). Students can also work in pairs helping each other with peer correction.


■ Students work in groups of four or five, reading each other's descriptions and discussing who would be the most interesting person to meet.


■ Each group then reads the description of their most interesting person to the class.




1 likes and dislikes, background

2 appearance, character

3 relationships


■ Write these questions about Alice on the board for

students to answer:

1 What does she look like? (She's short and thin with short, white hair and clear, blue eyes. She wears lipstick.)

2 What does she like? (She likes children and animals, especially dogs.)

3 What is she like? (She's cheerful, generous and helpful.)

Modals in the past

Language Problem Solving 6



This Language Problem Solving deals with modal verbs and expressions used to talk about past time. The following modals are presented: was/were able to - managed to (past achievement); had to - was obliged to (obligation in the past); didn't have to - wasn't obliged to (lack of obligation in the past); could - had the ability to (ability in the past), was allowed to (permission in the past); couldn't - didn't have the ability to (lack of ability in the past), wasn't allowed to (lack of permission in the past).

Note that could is not used when we refer to a particular occasion in the past when something happened, e.g. I could climb Mont Blanc last summer, as this would only mean that it was possible but not that it happened. To say that something was in fact achieved we use was able.

Mini-grammar: б

Exercise 1

■ Students work individually, reading the text and matching the modal expressions with the meanings.

■ Students can compare their answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.

■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read aloud each sentence and then give the meaning of the modal expression.


lc 2b 3f 4 g 5 d 6e 7a

Suggested answers

They couldn't take a hot shower every morning.

They couldn't cure illnesses such as pneumonia.

They didn't have to worry about the greenhouse effect.

They had to travel on foot or on horseback.

They were able to build very big churches.

They didn't have to work from 9 to 5.

They couldn't perform medical operations.

Exercise 5

■ Elicit suggestions from the class of typical abilities, obligations and achievements of seven-year-olds. If any of the students have seven-year-old relatives, ask them what these children can and can't do.

■ Students then think about themselves at that age and write six to eight sentences using past modals.

Exercise 6

■ Students work in pairs, telling each other about their childhood memories.

■ Some of the pairs then tell the class about their memories.



■ Students make similar sentences about themselves, beginning: Before I went to school, ... .

Exercise 2

■ Students work individually, rephrasing the words using modal expressions from Exercise 1.

■ Students can then work in pairs, reading both sentences to each other to check that the meaning is the same.

■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read aloud each pair of sentences.


1 couldn't 2 had to 3 could 4 couldn't 5 Were (you) able to 6 didn't have to

Exercise 3

■ Students do the exercise working individually.

■ Check students' answers by asking them to read the sentences aloud.


1 didn't have to 2 had to 3 could/was able to 4 couldn't 5 had to 6 couldn't, could 7 were able to 8 didn't have to 9 couldn't, had to 10 could

Exercise 4

■ Look at the first cue and example sentence with the class.

■ Students work in pairs, discussing how people lived in the Middle Ages and using the cues to write sentences.

■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences. If students disagree about any of the answers, encourage them to say why they chose a particular modal expression (e.g. the choice of modal in item 7 may depend on the student's attitude to working a '9 to 5' day).

Culture Corner 6



Resource used

Cassette/CD. Background

The song The Times They Are A' Changing was written by Bob Dylan in the early sixties. At that time, American society was undergoing a social revolution. Firstly, the civil rights movement in the USA, which had started in the mid fifties began to gain ground. This movement, campaigning for the rights of African Americans, was led by Martin Luther King and in the early sixties was winning substantial white support, especially among students and young people. In this period, there was also a growing awareness of women's rights, gay rights and the rights of other ethnic minorities such as Native Americans.

At the same time, a generational revolution was beginning in the USA. This would lead to the explosion of pop and rock music in the late sixties and to major changes in attitudes and lifestyles. American society had previously been extremely conservative and conventional. The new generation questioned traditional values in fundamental areas such as sex, drugs, the role of the family, work and possessions.

Forty years later, most of the changes predicted by Dylan have not occurred and the USA still has huge inequalities between rich and poor. Ironically, many of the young radicals from the sixties, like Dylan, have themselves become immensely wealthy. However, social attitudes have changed amongst the bulk of the population and America is unlikely to go back to the conservative and profoundly unfair society of the 1950s despite the efforts of the fundamentalist Christian Right.

Exerase 1

■ Ask students to look at the photos and say if they know anything about Bob Dylan and his songs. Encourage them to look at the photos and speculate about the kind of person he is, what he might be thinking, etc.

■ Read through the headings (1-4) with the class. Students work individually, reading the text silently and matching the paragraphs and headings.

■ Play the recording for students to listen and check their answers. Check spelling and pronunciation of the missing words.

■ After checking students' answers, play the song again for students to listen and join in if they wish.


1 grown 2 stone 3 again 4 win 5 hall 6 walls 7 understand 8 hand 9 fast 10 past 11 last


■ Write groups of words on the board. Ask students to find the word in each group that does not rhyme with the other two:

1 fair dear bear (dear) 3 poor four saw (poor)

2 seen train aeroplane (seen) 4 two do so (so)

Exercise 3

■ Ask individual students to read aloud the statements. Check that students understand the vocabulary (e.g. impose their values, social structure), ш Students work individually, matching the statements with the verses.


IB 2 A 3D 4 E 5 С

Exercise 4

■ As a class, students discuss protest songs in their country. Encourage students to say what they know about the songs, e.g. Who wrote/sang the song? When was it written? How would they tell an English-speaking friend what the song is about?

■ Individually or in pairs, students think about what they would like to hear in a protest song today.

■ Students discuss their ideas as a class and find out if there are any common topics or themes most of them would like to hear in a protest song. Students can then brainstorm vocabulary connected with one of the themes or topics and see if any of the words rhyme (examples might be pollution/solution, war/law/more).




A3 В 1 С 4

■ Students say what else they know about the USA in the 1960s (they may know about film and music of the decade or political events, e.g. the Vietnam War, assassination of president J. F. Kennedy in 1963, assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968). Remind students of the film Mississipi Burning from Lesson 8.

%, Exerase 2

■ Read through the instructions and draw attention to the example pair of rhyming words (grown/roam).

я Read aloud the first two lines of the song for students to complete with the word grown. If you wish, continue reading aloud the first verse of the song for students to guess the second missing word.

■ Students work individually or in pairs, reading the lyrics and using the Mini-dictionary to help with new words. Students try to guess the missing words, using clues from the rhyming pattern to help.

Review 6




■ To check and consolidate grammar studied in this module: modals - must, may, might, can't, had to, didn't have to, could/couldn't, was/were able to.

я To revise making opposites of adjectives.

■ To revise multi-part verbs.

■ To practise saying difficult voiced and unvoiced sounds.

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