■ Read the instructions and look at the table with the class. Ask students to give examples of verbs, nouns, adverbs and adjectives. Classify the first two or three phrases with the class. Students then complete the table, working individually or in pairs.
■ Write the headings of the table on the board. Check students' answers by asking individuals to list the phrases under the correct headings. Students can find the phrases in the texts to see them used in context and to check the meaning.
r-i + noun: offer (someone) a job, turn down (an/the/their) г-3*?, make (a/your/his) living, get the sack, provide rspi ration
■rt) + adverb: close (something) properly, do well, try hard, xno»> dramatically
<eo + adjective: get stuck, find (it/something) impossible, :ecome self-employed
u erase 8
• indents work individually, completing the sentences
-Tth collocations in their correct form. ■ Iheck answers by asking individuals to read aloud the
■ Read through the instructions and example questions with the class. Elicit more yes/no questions from the students and write prompts on the board, e.g. Do you work with your hands/with animals/meet a lot of people? Are you paid a lot of money? Is your job dangerous? The class can ask up to twenty questions and can guess the job at any time. Tell students that if they do not know the word in English, they can describe what the person does or give the name of the job in LI and ask you for a translation.
1 made his living 2 offered a job, turned down the r^er/turned it down 3 found it impossible 4 grown :-amatically 5 close properly
■ In pairs, students make their own sentences using three or four of the remaining phrases from Exercise 7 (do well, get stuck, get the sack, try hard, become self-employed, provide inspiration). Monitor, helping with vocabulary if necessary and pointing out any errors for students to correct.
■ The pairs then form groups of four or six and read each other's sentences.
■ Look at the vocabulary networks for do and make and the example items with the class. Check that students understand what to do.
■ Students complete the networks with the words from the text.
■ Check students' answers and write the two networks on the board.
do: your best, something about it, work, a job
make: somebody scared, a complaint, a (big) mistake, people
■ In pairs or small groups, students add more expressions to the networks. Check answers by asking students to add expressions to the networks on the board (examples are: do homework/a favour/housework and make trouble/a mess/a promise).
■ Students work individually, writing five to six sentences using some of the expressions in the network. Monitor and help students correct any errors.
■ Students then form pairs or small groups and read each other's sentences.
■ In turn, each student reads aloud one of their sentences to the class.
30 Dangerous Jobs----------
■ To talk about photos.
■ To practise using the vocabulary of jobs. « To practice raakwq reported statements.
This lesson deals with reported statements. We present the bask tense changes as well as the changes that certain time and place expressions undergo (such as here, now, last year, last month, yesterday, today, next year). We do not deal here with the issue of when we do and when we don't use backshift. However, teachers may warn students that we don't use backshift when what we report is still valid, i.e. the context/situation hasn't changed or when we believe in what we report, e.g. He claimed his job is as creative as an artist's means we believe in what we report; if our report is He claimed his job was ..., we signal that we don't necessarily share this opinion.
Routes through the material
»■ Short of time: give some exercises for homework, e.g. Exercises 9 and 10.
>■ Plenty of time: do the Options.
»- 2 classes for this lesson: break after Exercise 4.
Before you start Exercise 1
■ Check that students have the vocabulary to identify the jobs (A fisherman, В police officer, С construction worker). In pairs or small groups, students discuss the questions about the photos.
■ The groups then feed back to the class.
^ KEY WORDS: Jobs
architect, cashier, construction worker, electrician, farm worker, fire fighter, fisherman, forestry worker, journalist, lorry driver, miner, pilot, police officer, politician, soldier, taxi driver, window cleaner
■ Students read through the Key Words and check the meaning in the Mini-dictionary. In pairs, students discuss which are the five most dangerous jobs and put them in order.
■ The pairs report back to the class and see what similarities and differences there are in their choice of five dangerous jobs and the order of them. Encourage students to explain their choice and give examples of dangerous situations for the jobs they have chosen.
■ Students turn to page 131 and check their list. As a class, students discuss whether any of the information surprises them.
О Exercise 3
■ Play the recording once for students to read and listen for general comprehension.
■ Then play the recording, two or three times if necessary, for students to listen and complete the interview.
■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences containing the missing words.
1 27 2 brother 3 homicide 4 month 5 people 6 next year
■ Ask students to describe Sandra's personality, using some of the personality adjectives from page 93. Encourage students to refer to the text to give examples to support their opinion of her personality (suggested adjectives: brave, confident, hard-working, motivated, practical).
> Ask students what sort of area they think the Bronx is (it is one of the poorest areas of New York with a high crime rate, demolished buildings, deteriorating schools and public services).
■ Read through the instructions with the class and check that students understand what to do. Students do the exercise working individually, then compare answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.
1 interview: seen one mugging; report: seen two muggings
2 interview: looked for a suspect near a gas station; report: near a factory
3 interview: suspect pulled a gun; report: a knife
4 interview: spoken to mom about her job; report: father
5 interview: look for a different job in the department; report: in a shop
■ Students cover the text. Write expressions on the
board for students to complete with prepositions:
1 Sandra's family comes______ the Bronx, (from)
2 She knows the problems caused________ crime, (by)
3 Her brother had problems______ drugs, (with)
4 She's working______ homicide______ a big case, (in,
5 They were looking______ a suspect, (for)
6 The man pulled a gun_______ them, (on)
7 Her family worries______ her. (about)
8 In the future, she won't feel the same_________ taking
■ Read through the instructions and the example pair of sentences in the table with the class. If you wish, do the second sentence in the table with the whole class.
■ Students work in pairs, copying the sentences from the report and naming the tenses/verb forms. Monitor and help students if necessary.
■ Check students' answers by asking them to read aloud the pairs of interviews and reported sentences.
■ After checking answers, give students time to study the changes in verb forms when the reporting verb is in the past tense (e.g. said). Draw students' attention to the backshifting of the verb form and the changes in pronouns.
2 "We've had ...' (Present Perfect) She said they had had some difficult cases. (Past Perfect)
3 "We're working ...' (Present Continuous) ... were working on a big one. (Past Continuous)
4 1 didn't want to ... so I joined ...' (Past Simple) She said she hadn't wanted to just sit there and do nothing so she had joined the NYPD. (Past Perfect)
5 "We were looking ...' (Past Continuous) She said that they had been looking for a suspect. (Past Perfect Continuous)
6 Tm going to stop ... after I get..." (Future going to/Present Simple) She said she was going to stop doing it after she got carried. (Past of going to/Past Simple)
7 1 won't feel...' (Future will) She wouldn't feel the same about taking risks. (Past of will)
8 If we have children, I'll try to get a different job. (First Conditional) She said that if they had children she would try to get a different job. (Second Conditional)
■ Read aloud the example answers. Students then work individually, finding the equivalent time and place expressions in the report.
last year - the year before, last month - the month before, yesterday - the day before, today - that day, next year - the following year
■ Read the two sentences with the class with that in and then with that omitted. Also, say a sentence with think, first with that in and then with that omitted, e.g. She thought (that) the people were great.
■ Students translate the sentences into their own language and say how that is translated.
■ Students work individually, reading the reported statements and choosing the option that means the same.
1 He said he had won two cookery competitions the previous year. 2 He admitted that he had never cooked anything Japanese. 3 He said that the day before he had prepared lunch for the prime minister. 4 He claimed that his job was as creative as an artist's. 5 He added that he was working on a new recipe for tomato soup at that time. 6 He said he was sure the soup would be delicious. 7 He announced that the BBC were going to start showing his cookery programme the following month. 8 He said his own restaurant was opening that day and he invited all of us for a free meal.
■ Each student chooses one of the jobs from the Key Words on page 96. Write prompts on the board for them to think about:
reasons for choosing the job hours of work problems you deal with
your achievements what you like about the job your plans for the future я Students work in pairs, interviewing each other about their jobs. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency. Make a note of any general problems to go over with the class afterwards.
■ In turn, students tell the class three things about their partner's 'job'. Remind students to use correct forms for reporting what their partner told them.
■ Read through the instruction and the example sentence with the class. Give students time to think about what they are going to say.
■ In turn, each student tells the class what they heard someone say.
lb 2a 3b
■ Read through the example answer and do the next item with the whole class.
■ Students work in pairs, reading the report and writing the original words.
■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read each sentence in the report and then the original words.
I am actually almost fifteen kilos underweight. I have been employed by a few leading fashion magazines. I worked for two designers during last year's shows in Paris but I prefer to work with photographers. I am going to stay in the job for the next few years but I am planning to get married soon and hope to have a big family. I will probably start my own fashion studio some time in the future. Her job: fashion model
■ Students do the exercise working individually.
■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read aloud the pairs of sentences.
31 Getting a job------------
■ To practise talking about photos.
■ To practise using multi-part verbs.
■ To listen to and comment on an interview.
■ To practise giving advice for interviews.
■ To practise using the language of job interviews.
■ To practise asking polite questions.
■ To roleplay an interview situation.
■ To listen to a radio programme and practise taking notes.
Some students may be less confident than others when roleplaying an interview for a job and may be helped by being given time to plan and privately rehearse their role(s).
This lesson focuses on interviews common in Britain, either for study or for work. Interviews are normally conducted in a formal, neutral style with questions being asked politely. Politeness is important when asking the interviewer to repeat or explain something. Students need to identify any differences in their own country.
The quote is by Katherine Whitehorn, a popular British journalist and writer in the 1970s/80s.
Routes through the material
>- Short of time: give some of the exercises for homework, e.g. Exercise 1 and the preparation for the interview in Exerase 7.
>■ Plenty of time: do the Options.
>- 2 classes for this lesson: break after Exercise 6.
Vocabulary: Multi-part Verbs (8) Before you start Exercise 1
■ Read through the list of verbs with the class. Do the first one or two answers (for dress up and get across) with the whole class.
■ Students work individually or in pairs, completing the exercise and referring to the Mini-dictionary if necessary.
■ Check answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences using the verbs in the list instead of the underlined verbs.
1 put on good clothes, communicate 2 Relax 3 make a list 4 find information 5 arrive 6 make yourself comfortable, observe everything in a place 7 write 8 invent 9 pretend 10 talk a lot about 11 talk clearly 12 think of
■ Read aloud the instruction and the example sentences. Check that students understand what to do. Point out the use of the imperative (Don't calm down/Calm down) in the sentences.
■ Students do the exercise working individually. Monitor and help students correct any language errors.
■ Students can compare answers in pairs or small groups before discussing their answers as a whole class.
■ If students disagree about the answers, encourage them to argue their case, e.g. some students may feel that it is acceptable to take notes in some interviews but not in others.
Students may decide that sentences 6, 8, 9 and 10 are things definitely not to do at an interview.
■ Elicit more advice from the class of what to do and what not to do before and during interviews.
■ Students look at the photo of Oliver at his interview for a holiday job and discuss how well they think he is doing, giving their reasons.
О Exercise 4
■ Tell students to listen for an overall understanding of the interview so they can decide if Oliver got the job.
Yes, he probably got the job because he was polite, expressed himself clearly and had the right personal qualities and experience.
Tapescript See page 147.
О Exercise 5
■ Give students time to read through the Function File and guess some of the missing words. Then play the recording, two or three times if necessary, for students to listen and complete the Function File.
■ Check students' answers by asking individuals to read aloud the sentences.
1 see 2 A' levels 3 hope 4 want 5 reputation б enjoy 7 experience 8 help 9've organised 10 qualities 11 sorry 12 certainly 13 important 14 would 15 just 16 Could 17 in touch
■ Play the recording for more detailed comprehension work. Ask students to listen for extra information about:
1 the woman and the company 2 Oliver
Play the recording two or three times for students to
listen and make notes.
■ Students feed back to the class and see how much they have understood and remembered. Check students' understanding of any new words (e.g. personnel manager, monitors).
О Exercise 6
■ Remind students that rising intonation usually sounds polite and flat intonation can sound rude or bored.
■ Students listen to the recording and note if the speaker is polite or not.
1 polite 2 not polite 3 not polite 4 polite 5 polite
1 I'm sorry, what do you mean exactly?
2 Whafs that?
3 What do you mean?
4 I'm sorry, could you say that again?
5 Would you mind repeating that, please?
■ Students listen and repeat the polite questions. Tapescript
I'm sorry, what do you mean exactly? I'm sorry, could you say that again? Would you mind repeating that, please?
2 future jobs 3 information technology 4 skills needed 5 changes in working life
Tapescript See page 148.
О Exercise 13
■ Students listen again and use the Strategies in Exercise 11 to add more information and examples to the table. Tell students to try and add more than one example or piece of information for each topic. If necessary, play the recording several times for students to complete the table.
■ Read through the notes with the class. Elicit one or two suggestions of necessary qualities for each of the two jobs.
■ Divide the class into pairs. Give students time to think about and prepare for the interviews.
■ Remind students to use expressions from the Function File in their interviews. Students work in pairs, acting out their interviews and changing roles so that each student takes the part of an interviewer and a candidate. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency. Make a note of any general points to go over with the class afterwards.
■ The pairs report back to the class, giving reasons why the candidates got (or didn't get) the jobs.
■ Encourage students to discuss how well they felt they managed the interviews in English. What were they pleased with? Could they say what they wanted to say? What did they find most difficult?
■ Students discuss the questions as a class or in groups. Encourage students to tell the class about any holiday jobs and interviews they have had.
■ Read through the Strategies with the class. Discuss the advantages of using information networks, key words and abbreviations when taking notes.
■ Students discuss how they take notes when listening to English. If your students did the Option activity after Exercise 5, ask them to look at their notes and see if they used abbreviations, key words, etc.
w Exercise 12
■ Ask students to look at the two photos and identify the jobs (coal miner, call centre operator). Encourage students to say what sort of person would be suitable for each job. Ask students if they think this kind of work is declining or expanding nowadays. Read through the instructions, the list of topics and the table. Point out that coal mining is given as an example of a declining industry.
■ Tell students to listen the first time to complete the Topic column of the table.
1 agriculture, textiles, heavy industries (e.g. steel), banking
2 tourism, business and professional services, the media, IT, biosciences 3 by 2020 there will be one billion computers in the world, computer programmers and systems analysts will be needed 4 IT, work co-operatively/in a team, communication skills, language skills, cultural awareness 5 people change companies more, more freelance workers, more teleworkers working from home
я Students work in pairs, using their notes to tell each other the information they have. Monitor and help students correct any language errors when they are reporting their information.
■ Students then compare their actual notes, looking at organisation, layout, amount of information, use of abbreviations and key words.
QUOTE ... UNQUOTE,
■ Read the quote to the class and elicit suggestions of work that people like doing and are paid to do, e.g. actors, musicians, sportspeople, people inventing and playing computer games.
■ To practise writing a CV and a letter of application.
■ To practise using linking words expressing reason.
■ To listen to a radio programme to check your guesses to questions.
■ To practise using speaking strategies for interacting in discussions.
Cassette/CD, Writing Help 8. Background
The layout and forms of expression in the letter are a good model for this type of formal letter from a young adult.
Routes through the material
>■ Short of time: give some of the writing exercises for homework.
»- Plenty of time: do the Options.
Two classes for this lesson: break after Writing Talkback.
Before you start Exercise 1
■ Read aloud the heading for the advertisement (World Aid) and ask students to predict what sort of job it is advertising.
■ Tell students to read the advertisement, the CV and the letter of application fairly quickly for general understanding of the main points and to see if they think Maureen's application would be successful. Reassure students that they will study all the texts more closely during the lesson.
■ As a class, students discuss if they think Maureen's application would be successful and give their reasons.
(Probably) yes because she has all the right qualities and experience.
■ Ask students to read the topics (a-e) and say the order they would put them in if they were writing the letter.
■ Students read the letter and match the parts of the letter with the topics. They can see if their own order is the same.
le 2d 3b 4c 5a Exercise 3
■ Working individually, students look at the underlined words and decide if they express addition or reason.
|KMt z 32 Communication Workshops|
reason: because, as, due to, since addition: also, in addition
■ Look at Maureen's Curriculum Vitae with the students. Explain that, in the section on Education and Qualifications, A is the best grade and F is the worst.
■ Students work in pairs, reading the CV and writing three questions (and the answers) about the information in the Curriculum Vitae, e.g. What is the number of Maureen's house? (87). Monitor and point out any errors in question formation for students to correct.
■ Students then cover the text. In turn, the pairs ask the rest of the class their questions.
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