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A Personal Letter (2) Stage 1

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m Read through the instructions and the points of advice to give to the exchange student. Refer students to the section on Useful Vocabulary in Writing Help 9 on page 144. Students make notes of their ideas.

Stage 2

■ Advise students to refer to Suzanne's letter and the sections on Layout and Linking in Writing Help 9. Students work individually, organising their notes into four paragraphs and writing their letter.

Stage 3

я Students refer to the section on Checking in Writing Help 9 and check their letter. Monitor and point out any language errors for students to correct.


■ In groups, students read each other's letters and see if they agree with the advice. Students discuss any advice they disagree with in their groups. Remind students to disagree politely.

ШРт Шьк

■ Some of the students then read out their letters to the class.

In this Language Problem Solving we deal with linking words used for several functions: explaining causes (e.g. because), giving reasons (e.g. so that), giving conditions (e.g. if), contrasting (e.g. however), giving more information (e.g. where), sequencing actions/events (e.g. finally).

Exercise 1

■ Students work individually, reading the text silently and deciding what is the most useful advice.

■ Students work in small groups, discussing what they found was the most useful advice. Monitor and encourage students to practise agreeing and disagreeing politely with each other.

■ The groups then report back to the class and see if there is any general agreement about the most useful advice.

Exercise 2

■ Students work individually or in pairs, referring back to the text to find the linking words and matching the groups of linking words (a-f) with their functions (1-6).

■ If students disagree about any of the answers, ask one of the students to read aloud the sentences from the text containing the linking words. As a class, students then discuss the function of the linking words.


Language Problem Solving 9

le 2 f 3c 4b 5 d 6a


1 Although he was ill, he played the match. 2 Unless I have to, I never travel by plane. 3 After the rain stopped, the match began. 4 Even though he didn't have a lot of money, he managed to start his own business. 5 In order to be famous, he climbed the Empire State Building.

Exercise 6

■ Point out that students are asked to complete the sentences in a 'logical' way. Elicit suggestions for completing the first sentence.

■ Students work individually or in pairs, completing the sentences. Monitor and point our any language errors to be corrected by the students.

■ Students form small groups and read each other's sentences.

■ Each student can then read out one of his/her sentences to the class.


■ Ask students to look back at the six functions and list of linking words in Exercise 2. In pairs or small groups, students write six sentences, each containing a linking word for one of the six functions. Monitor and point out any language errors for students to correct.

Linking words

■ In turn, the groups can then read out some of their sentences to the class.



Exercise 3

■ Read the instructions with the class. Explain that in some sentences there may be more than one possible answer.

■ Students do the exercise working individually. They can compare answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.

■ When checking answers, ask students to explain how the meaning of a sentence changes when different linking words are used. Ask students to translate some of the sentences into their LI.


1 After/Despite 2 When/As soon as/After/Before/Because 3 even though/although/but 4 Despite 5 in order to 6 so that

Exercise 4

■ Students do the exercise working individually or in pairs. Point out that students may have to change other parts of the sentence when they rewrite them using the linking words.


1 Despite the horrible weather/Despite the weather being horrible, we decided to go camping. 2 Even if the tickets for Sting's concert have been sold out, I will try to get inside. 3 As soon as I find a job, I'll rent a flat. 4 I spoke very slowly so that all the foreigners could understand me. 5 Wherever I go, I take an English dictionary. 6 I learn languages because I want to communicate with people from different countries.

Exercise S

■ Check students' answers by asking pairs of students to read aloud the original sentence and then the rewritten sentence. Check that students have used commas correctly in the rewritten sentences.

ture Corner 9



K-jwrce used

Iciecte/CD. faoqround

- «alking' is trekking in the outback.

■ .ae-ts look at and talk about the pictures, saying what know of kangaroos, koala bears. Aborigines and -ig in Australia.

• E Tcourage students to say what else they know about V^tralia. Ask students what they remember about V-stralia from the Warm-up (page 105). If you have a age map of Australia, display it for students to refer to -"•en talking about different areas and places in Australia.

Lisrrise 2

:ead through the instructions with the class. Students -orlc in A/B pairs. Each student reads his/her factfile and sees what information is missing. Encourage students to guess the meaning of any new words from the context or to use their Mini-dictionary/ask you for the meaning.

• Students work in pairs, asking and answering questions to complete their factfile. They can check their answers by comparing the factfiles for Student A and Student В and checking that they have the correct information.

• Ask students if any of the information surprised them and what information they thought was most interesting.

Lxertise 3

• Read through the statements with the class for students to guess if each statement is true or false.

a Students then read the text fairly quickly to check their guesses. When checking students' answers, ask them to correct the false statements.


1 F (They probably came from Indonesia.) 2 F (They were nomads.) 3 T 4 T


■ Draw students' attention to the use of the linkers although (paragraph 2), because (paragraph 2) and However (paragraph 3). Ask students what function each linker has (contrast: although, however; reason: because).

ш Ask students to read the text and find words and phrases that tell us when things happened (50,000 years ago/years old, originally, today, in recent years).

\, Exercise 4

■ Read through the list of topics with the class. Play the recording several times for students to listen and make notes. Tell students they are not expected to make a note of all the outdoor activities, sports and animals that are mentioned but just to make a note of one or two examples.


■ In pairs, students compare their notes.

■ As a whole class, students report the notes they made for each heading. If there is any disagreement, play the recording again for the class to listen and check their information.

Tapescript See page 149.


■ After checking students' notes, play the recording again. Write on the board any new words that students want to copy into their vocabulary books (some students, for example, may be very interested in Australian animals whereas other students may be more interested in the sports that are mentioned).

Exercise 5

■ In groups, students discuss whether they would like to visit or live in Australia, giving reasons. Monitor but do not interrupt students' fluency. Make a note of any general language problems to go over with the class afterwards.

■ The groups report back to the class.

Comparing Cultures

■ Read through the instructions with the class and elicit suggestions of other countries to choose. Students can work individually or in pairs. Students can choose to find out information about several topics or they can focus on one or two topics and find out more detailed information about each one. Tell students their presentation should take no longer than one minute and advise them to time their presentation at home.

ш Allow time in class and/or at home for students to research their chosen country, make notes and rehearse their presentation. Advise students to find one or two pictures or maps to use in their presentation. Be available to help if necessary.

■ In turn, students give their presentations. The other students listen and think of questions to ask at the end of the presentation.


■ Students write up their presentations and attach their visuals. Monitor and point out any errors for students to correct. If there is space in your classroom, students can make a display of their work with the title 'Other Countries'.


■ To check and consolidate grammar studied in this module: reported questions, linking words.

■ To revise vocabulary: words with positive, negative and neutral connotations, multi-part verbs.

■ To practise pronunciation of difficult words. Resource used


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