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Exercise 16. Put the predicates into the Past and Future using equivalents of the Modal verbs. Translate the sentences.

Читайте также:
  1. A conical refining gap inside one refiner housing (Fig. 4.30).
  2. A) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms of Present, Past or Future Simple.
  3. A) Read the following voice mail messages and complete each message using one of the three verbs In the box.
  4. American Terminology is sometimes confusing
  5. California wants to lead America to a greener future
  6. Carry out a system design procedure using observer design method
  7. Complete the sentences using Past Continuous (45-48)

1. Usually bacteria can be seen under the electron microscope.

2. Cetax may be indicated for the treatment of pa­tient with genitourinary infections caused by susceptible strains of microorganisms.

3. Pneumococci can cause pneumonia.

4. Bacterial infections must be treated with antibiotics.

5. The patient can gain his body weight in some months.

6. In future the patient must avoid stress and physical exertion.

7. Chlamidia may be involved in coronary heart disease.

8.Bacteria may have very different morphologies and metabolisms.

Exercise 17. Choose proper variant of Modal verbs. Read and translate into native language:

In 1876, Robert Koch (1843–1910) established that microbes can/could cause disease. He found that the blood of cattle that were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. Koch found that he can/could transmit anthrax from one animal to another by taking a small sample of blood from the infected animal and injecting it into a healthy one, and this caused the healthy animal to become sick. He also found that he can/could grow the bacteria in a nutrient broth [brof] бульйон, then inject it into a healthy animal, and cause illness. Based on these experiments, he devised criteria for establishing a causal link between a microbe and a disease and these are now known as Koch's postulates. Although these postulates cannot/could not be applied in all cases, they do retain historical importance to the development of scientific thought and are still being used today.

Exercise 18. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. Frequently bacteria may secrete chemicals into their environment.

2. Disinfectants must be used to kill bacteria.

3. Robert Koch might work on cholera and tuberculosis.

4. First it was Antonie van Leeuwenhoek who was able to observe bacteria in 1676.

5. The bacterial secretion can act as enzymes.

6. Bacteria have to grow and divide extremely rapidly.

7. The process of division will be able to depend on the conditions of the environment.

8.Scientists were allowed to use different techniques to promote the growth of bacteria.

Exercise 19. Translate into English using Modal verbs or their equivalents:

1. Студенти повинні регулярно відвідувати анатомічний зал.

2. - Можна увійти? Вибачте, я запізнився.

3. Вчора черговий лікар зміг швидко зупинити кровотечу.

4. Хворий повинен був приймати ліки тричі на день.

5. Вибачте, я повинен йти, вже дуже пізно.

6. Патогенні мікроорганізми здатні спричиняти важкі захворювання.

7. Завтра хворий зможе (йому дозволять) вийти на прогулянку.

8. Вся інформація про хворого повинна бути записана в історію хвороби.

 

Exercise 20. Make up the situation using the following word-combinations:

1. aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms

2. bacterial species

3. to increases in size

4. pathogenic bacteria

5. bacterial metabolism and genetics

6. bacteriology

 

Exercise 21. Explain the terms:

microorganisms

bacteriology

Завдання для самостійної роботи

студентів (СРС)

1. Перекладіть та вивчіть наступні словосполучення: 1. атмосферний вільний кисень 2. процес поділу клітин 3. умови навколишнього середовища 4. паличкоподібні бактерії 5. викликати інфекцію 6. для того, щоб виділити хімічні речовини 7. життя та ріст мікроогранізмів 8. погіршувати здоров,я 9. головна причина смерті людини 10.збільшувати(ся) у розмірі до певної межі   2. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання: What groups may all the existing microorganisms be divided into? What conditions are favourable for aerobic microorganisms? When do bacteria grow and multiple extremely rapidly? What bacteria are a major cause of human death and diseases? What science studies bacteria?   3. Поясніть наступні терміни у 5ти реченнях: microorganisms bacteriology

 

Virology ВІРУСОЛОГІЯ

 

Text: Virology

Grammar: Modal Verbs and their Equivalents.

 

PRE-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS

Exercise 1.Learn the new words:

1. virus [‘vairəs] вірус
2. ultra fine [‘ʌl trə’faɪn] надтонкий
3. to exploit [‘ɛksplɔɪt] використовувати
4. reproduction [‘riprə’dʌkʃən] відтворення
5. to isolate [‘aɪsə’leɪt] ізолювати, виділяти
6. host [həʊst] господар
7. fungal [‘fʌŋgəl] грибковий
8. range [reɪndʒ] варіювати
9. DNA   ДНК
10. RNA   РНК
11. reverse transcribing [rɪ’vɜs træn’skraɪbiŋ] зворотна транскрипція
12. viral replication [‘vaɪrəl ‘rɛplɪkeɪʃən] реплікація вірусу
13. particle [‘pɑtɪkəl] частка

 



Exercise 2. Translate the groups of words:

An exclusion - to exclude – exclusive, a research - to research – research, a reproduction – to reproduce – reproductive, an infection – to infect –infectious, a culture - to culture – cultural, an explosion – to explode – explosive, an evolution – to evolve –evolutionary, an inclusion – to include – inclusive, a cause – to cause – causative, an isolation - to isolate – isolable.

Exercise 3. Translate from English:

Tobacco mosaic disease, to pass through filters, existence of viruses, to be grown easily in culture, explosion of virology research, ways to infect and exploit cells, virus reproduction, the techniques to isolate viruses, viral replication method , use in research and therapy, animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses and bacteriophages, the most widely used classification system, to coax host cells.

 


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Читайте в этой же книге: GRAMMAR IN USE | PRE-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS | POST-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS | Part III | POST-TEXT ASSIGNMENTS | GRAMMAR IN USE | PRESENT PERFECT ACTIVE | Microbiology | History of Medical Microbiology | MICROORGANISMS |
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Exercise 11. Find corresponding equivalents| Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.

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