ЧЕРНІГІВСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ ПЕДАГОГІЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ
Кафедра педагогіки та методики викладання іноземних мов
Subjunctive I & IIthe Suppositional Mood
до змістового модулю 3 «Практичної граматики
(3 семестр)» для студентів 2 курсу
Укладачі: Гайдай Н.М.
Чернігів – 2014
Рецензенти: С.Л. Бобир – кандидат пед. наук, доцент, завiдувач кафедри педагогіки та методики викладання iноземних мов;
Т.О. Стеченко – кандидат педагогiчних наук, доцент кафедри педагогiки та методики викладання iноземних мов
Вiдповiдальний редактор С.Л. Бобир – кандидат педагогiчних наук, доцент
Г14 Subjunctive I & II, the Suppositional Mood: Методичні рекомендації для студентів 2-го курсу філологічного факультету спеціальності 6.020303 "Філологія. Мова та лiтература (англiйська)" / Гайдай Н.М.,Дідух А.А. – Чернiгiв: Чернiгiвський національний педагогiчний унiверситет iменi Т.Г. Шевченка, 2014. – 80 с.
Методичні рекомендації призначені для студентiв II курсу спецiальностi «Мова та лiтература (англiйська)». Він включає теоретичні пояснення щодо особливостей вживання форм, що вказують на нереальність або проблематичність дії та вправи для формування навички їх вживання в усному та писемному мовленні.
Рекомендовано до друку на засiданнi кафедри педагогiки та методики викладання iноземних мов
(Протокол № 2 вiд 9 жовтня 2014 р.)
© Н.М. Гайдай, Дідух А.А.2014
The Use of Subjunctive II for Unreal Wishes and Regrets
If only I could stand on a street corner with my hat in my hand, and get people to throw their wasted time into it! (B.Berenson)
If only God would give me some clear sign! Like making a large deposit in my name in a Swiss bank. (Woody Allen)
Subjunctive II can be used in simple sentences which have the structure of adverbial clauses of condition but express an unreal wish or regret. Compare the sentences:
The actual situation: I don’t know what to do and I’m at a loss.
Conditional sentence: If I knew what to do, I wouldn’t be at a loss.
Simple sentence expressing unreal wish: If only I knew what to do!
Present Subjunctive II is used to express unreal wish or regret about the present. E.g.: If only I knew what to do!
Past Subjunctive II is used to express regret about the past action. E.g. If only I had known what to do at that moment.
Modal verb ‘Would’ is used to express wish for a future change unlikely to happen. E.g.: If only he would listen to me.
Exercise 1Express unreal wish about the following situations. E.g.: I don’t know grammar well – If only I knew grammar better!
1. I always come late for classes. 2. I often forget to write down my home assignment. 3. I often make mistakes in my essays. 4. I can’t concentrate on my studies. 5. I often oversleep. 6. I have a very bad handwriting. 7. I have to take my exam again. 8. I am always busy. 9. I don’t have time to socialize.
Exercise 2Show that you are sorry about the action which took or didn’t take pace in the past.E.g.: I made a mistake. – If only I hadn’t made it.
1. I forgot about the seminar in Philosophy yesterday. 2. I didn’t prepare for the seminar properly. 3. I didn’t study hard at school. 4. I skipped many classes last semester. 5. I didn’t pay much attention to my pronunciation last year. 6. I didn’t hand in my essay in time. 7. I couldn’t answer her questions properly.
Exercise 3 Express unreal wish or regret about the following present and past situations.
1. My group mates never help me. 2. I didn’t pass my credit in Latin. 3. My teachers often tell me off for coming late. 4. I don’t have much free time. 5. My teacher didn’t let me pass my self-study assignments after the deadline. 6. I’m tired. 7. My group mates didn’t warn me about the test in Practical Grammar. 8. I made ten grammar mistakes in the test yesterday 9. I didn’t pay much attention in class. 10. I am absent-minded and forget lots of things. 11. He didn’t call. 12. I have to go now. 13. I can’t drive. 14. He couldn’t find a way out.
Exercise 4Translate the sentences.
1. Якби ж то я знала, що у нас сьогодні тест. 2. Якби ж то я вчора приготувалася до нього. 3. Якби ж то я вміла швидко запам’ятовувати. 4. Якби ж то я не дивилася телевізор вчора до пізнього вечора. 5. Якби ж то мої одногрупники допомогли мені приготуватися вчора. 6. Якби ж мій молодший брат не брав моїх речей і не псував їх. 7. Якби ж то моя мама випадково не викинула мої зошити із самостійною роботою. 8. Якби ж то я була готова до тесту з Логіки. 9. Якби ж то я не забула вчора записати свій розклад на наступний тиждень. 10. Якби ж то у нас сьогодні не було 4-х пар.
Exercise 5Look at the pictures and say what these people are probably thinking about.
I wish I were a tiny cup
from which you drink your tea
for then I’d know,
with every sip you give a kiss to me.
Subjunctive II can be used in object subordinate clauses of complex sentences after the verb ‘to wish’ to express an unreal wish or regret. It means the same as ‘if only’ but it’s less dramatic. E.g.: If only I knew what to do! =I wish I knewwhat to do.
Present Subjunctive II is used to express unreal wish or regret about the present. E.g.: I wish I knew what to do!
Past Subjunctive II is used to express regret about the past action. E.g. I wish I had known what to do at that moment.
Modal verb ‘Would’ is used to express wish for a future change unlikely to happen. E.g.: I wish he would listen to me. It could be also a polite request implying dissatisfaction or lack of hope. E.g.: I wish you would stop smoking.
|main clause||object subordinate clause|
|smb||wish(es)||smb.||V2 / had V3|
|I wish||I hadmore money to buy what I need.|
| Watch out!
ü ‘Wish’ and ‘would’ should have different subjects. E.g.: |
Exercise 1a) Read the jokes. Comment on Subjunctive II in “wish-sentences”. Translate the jokes into Ukrainian.
b) Here are some poems written by the students of our department. Read them and recite the one you like. Try your hand at writing poems.
I wish I were a little bird
Enjoying the blue sky
For then I’d know that
World below today is mine.
I wish I were a waterfall
Which’s jumping from the hill
For then I’d feel the freedom of
the life, I’d be a queen!
I wish I were somebody’s dream
And one day I’d come true
To make somebody believe
That happiness is true.
The more I wish the less I get,
But I believe in dreams
the best my wish now is to be
Myself and always here.
I wish I were leaves
To fly around you
I wish I were the trees
To see you walking through.
I wish I were a bird
To sing my songs to you.
I wish I were a word
To be your point of view.
I wish I were a wild cat
It would be funny and don’t forget
I could be free, I could do everything I want,
Besides I could have a chance to see the world.
Sometimes I wish I were a wild bird
Then I could fly, enjoy the universe
I could be strong, all powerful, majestic,
But I would never be the happiest, just selfish.
Exercise 2 a) Wendy has just started university. It isn't what she expected, and she is disappointed. Read what she says and make sentences, as in the example. E.g. My room is so small. = I wish my room weren’t so small.
· I have to share the bathroom.
· The kitchen is such a mess.
· My tutors are strict.
· The classes are so hard to understand.
· The people are not friendly.
· I can’t visit my family because they are so far away.
· I don’t have any friends.
b) University life is not always what you expected it to be. Say what you are disappointed about.
Exercise 3 a) Jason has been for an interview. He didn't get
the job. Read what he says and make sentences, as in the example.
|· I didn't know much about the company. · I was nervous. · I didn't shake hands with my interviewer. · I forgot what I wanted to say. · I didn't answer the interviewer's questions properly. · My letter of application was badly typed. · I spilt the cup of tea I was given|
E.g. I didn’t prepare well. = I wish I had prepared better.
b) Tell your friend about an experience of yours when things went wrong. Use ‘wish-sentences’ to express your regrets.
Exercise 4 Imagine that you are in the following situations. What could you say starting with ‘I wish”?
1. You've eaten too much and feel sick. You say: I wish I hadn’t eaten...
2. There was a job advertised in the newspaper. You decided not to apply for it. Now you think that your decision was wrong. You say:
3. You don't know many people at the party and you feel lonely. You ...
4. You are sitting at the desk studying but you are also dreaming about lying on a sandy beach. You say: ......................................................
5. When you were younger, you didn't learn to play a musical instrument. Now you regret it. You say: …........................................
6. It’s Saturday tomorrow but you have to work. You say: .....................
7. You've painted the gate red. Now you think that it doesn't look nice.
8. You are walking in the country. You would like to take some photos but you haven’t brought your camera. You say: …............................
9. Your car has just broken down but you can’t fix it. You don’t know anything about cars. You say: ….........................................................
10. You left your key inside the flat and you can’t unlock the door. You ..
Exercise 5 a) Elise is a famous singer. These are some of the things she finds annoying. Read what she says and make sentences, as in the example. e.g. I wish people wouldn't stare at me everywhere I go.
· People stare at me everywhere I go.
b) What do you find annoying in the way other people behave? (Think about your neighbours, relatives, people in trolley-buses, politicians)
| Watch out! We use ‘would’ for actions and changes, not situation.
E.g.: I wish Sarah came earlier. I wish Sarah would come earlier.
I wish Sarah were here. ( |
Exercise 6 Correct the sentences that are wrong.
1. I wish Sarah would be here now.
...WRONG:.I wish Sarah were here now. (situation is meant)
2. I wish you would listen to me. ………………..
3. I wish my parents would have more money. ………………
4. I wish it wouldn't be so cold today. ………………
5. I wish the weather would change. ………………
6. I wish you wouldn't complain all the time …………
7. I wish everything wouldn't be so expensive …………
Exercise 7Complete the dialogues using the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1. A: I wish I ...could play... (play) a musical instrument.
B: You should take lessons.
2. A: If only the wind ………………… (stop) blowing so hard.
B: Yes, it's very windy today, isn't it?
3. A: I wish John............... (come) with us.
B: So do I. He would have really enjoyed it.
4. A: Paul, I wish you ....... (stop) making so much noise.
B: Sorry, I'll try.
5. A: I wish I ......... (study) more when I was at school.
B: It doesn't matter now. You've got a good job.
6. A: I wish I.......... (be) young again.
B: So do I. We had some good times back then.
7. A: I wish I ......... (not/speak) to Jane like that.
B: Don't worry. I'm sure she'll forgive you.
8. A: If only Bob................ (call) me.
B: Well, he promised to call today.
9. A: I'm exhausted. I wish I ...(do) some of the housework yesterday.
B: Sorry I wasn't here to help you.
10. A: I wish you .... (make) less noise when you come in.
B: It's not my fault. The door squeaks when you open it.
11. A: Are you going to your school reunion party next week?
B: No. I wish I ………(go) because I would like to see everyone again.
12. A: I wish I …………… (practice) harder before the exam.
B: I thought you performed very well.
13. A: If only Stuart …………….. (call) me.
B: Don’t worry. I’m sure he’ll phone soon.
14. A: If only I ………… (buy) those shoes we saw yesterday.
B: Why not go back and buy them tomorrow?
15. A: I wish you …………… (tidy) your room more often.
B: Sorry, I’ll try to.
|In spoken English to avoid repetition after ‘wish’ we often use an auxiliary verb instead of the notional verb. E.g. I don’t know many people but I wish I did. (= I wish I knew). I didn’t know many people when I studied at school but I wish I had. ( = I wish I had known). There’s no chance that he’ll stop making fun of me but I wish he would. (= I wish he would stop making fun of me).|
Exercise 8Complete the sentences with the proper auxiliary verb.
1. She can't type but she wishes she ...could........................................
2. They didn't buy the antique vase but they wish they ..........….……
3. I'm not going to the concert but I wish I .................................
4. I'm not very tall but I wish I ............................................................
5. I didn't go to the meeting but I wish I .............................................
6. I can't tell him the truth but I wish I ...............................................
7. I don't earn much money but I wish I .............................................
8. He probably won't listen but I wish he ...........................................
9. She won't accept help but I wish she ..............................................
10. They haven't got any children but they wish they .........…………..
11. I didn't see the programme but I wish I …………..........................
12. She's not qualified enough for the job but she wishes she …..........
13. He can't afford to buy her a diamond ring but he wishes he ….......
14. I don't live close to the office, but I wish I ……………….............
15. She hasn't got a fax machine but she wishes she …………............
Exercise 9a) Read the dialogue.
A: Haven’t you finished yet?
B: I wish I had. I can’t go till I’ve completed this report.
A: Can’t you do it tomorrow?
B: I wish I could, but Mannering wants it tonight.
b) Discuss your affairs with your partner.
Exercise 10Read the thoughts of different people and paraphrase them using “I wish”.
1. I'm sorry I haven't got a washing machine.
2. I'm sorry I don't live near my work.
3. I'm sorry our garden doesn't get any sun.
4. I'm sorry I called him a liar.
5. I'm sorry I don't know Finnish.
6. I'm sorry I didn't book a seat.
7. I'm sorry I can't drive.
8. I'd like Tom to drive more slowly (I haven't any great hopes of this).
9. I'd like you to keep quiet. (You're making too much noise.)
10. I'm sorry we accepted the invitation.
11. I'm sorry that theatre tickets cost so much.
12. It's a pity that shops here shut on Saturday afternoon.
13. It's a pity he didn't work harder during the term.
14. I'm sorry you didn't see it.
15. It's a pity you are going tonight.
16. I would like it to stop raining (but I'm not very hopeful).
17. I'd like you to wait for me (even though you are ready to start now).
18. I'm sorry I didn't bring a map.
19. I'm sorry I ever came to this country.
20. I'm sorry I left my last job.
21. I'm sorry I didn't stay in my last job.
22. I'd like him to cut his hair (but I don't suppose he will).
23. I'd like him to stop smoking in bed (but I haven't any great hopes).
24. I'm sorry I didn't know you were coming.
25. I'm sorry you told Jack.
26. I'm sorry I didn't ask the fishmonger to open these oysters.
27. I'm sorry I can't swim.
28. I'm sorry you aren't coming with us.
29. It's a pity you didn't ask him how to get there.
30. I’d like every country to stop killing whales (but have no hope of this)
Exercise 11Translate the sentences into English.
1. Якби ж то я мав вільний час зараз.
2. Шкода, що я запізнився за зустріч.
3. Якби я вмів малювати!
4. Шкода, що вона не знала відповіді на запитання.
5. Добре було б, якби у мене зараз була відпустка.
6. Якби ж то канікули почалися на два тижні раніше.
7. Шкода, що я не послухався їхньої поради.
8. Жаль, що вони не змінили своєї думки.
9. Добре було б, якби ти знав правду.
10. Шкода, що він не припинив робити такі помилки.
11. Жаль, що вона хворіє.
12. Шкода, що вже пізно щось змінити.
13. Якби ж він тільки перестав запізнюватися на заняття.
14. Вона шкодує, що перестала там працювати.
15. Шкода, що ви не відвідали виставу. Вона була чудова.
Exercise 12 a) Steve has just moved houses and has written a letter
to his friend about it. Read it and put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
b)Steve sent the letter, but before it achieved its addressee, Beth called to find out how the things were.Make up a dialogue between Steve and Beth.
Exercise 13 Steve has a problem with living in a village now because he is used to living in a city. But there are many problems connected with living in a city. Comment on the following problems and suggest your ideas.
1. The first thing that comes to mind when you think of the city is crowded. Everything seems to be crowded all the time. I wish ……
2. There’re queues everywhere you go. You have to waste lots of time. I
3. The traffic is terrible. There are traffic jams on the roads. I wish …..
4. It takes you hours to get from one place to another. I wish ……
5. The crime rate is increasing all the time. People can be mugged in the streets, their houses are broken into. It’s terrible. I wish …….
6. I’ve heard the law was adopted that we have to pay more for the services.
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