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Ex. 1. Open the parentheses using the Subjunctive Mood.

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СОСЛАГАТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Сослагательное наклонение указывает на то, что говорящий рассматривает действие не как реальный факт, а как предполагаемое или желательное действие.

В русском языке имеется только одна форма сослагательного наклонения – сочетание формы глагола прошедшего времени с частицей бы (пошел бы, сделал бы). В английском языке сослагательное наклонение выражается различными формами.

 

Формы сослагательного наклонения

 

В английском языке формы сослагательного наклонения можно разделить на три группы.

 

Первая группа

К первой группе форм сослагательного наклонения относятся Present Subjunctive, Past Subjunctive, Past Perfect Subjunctive. Другие формы – Present Continuous Subjunctive, Past Continuous Subjunctive и т.д. – употребляются очень редко.

 

PresentSubjunctive Past Subjunctive Past Perfect Subjunctive
I work He (she, it) work We work You work They work I worked He (she, it) worked We worked You worked They worked I had worked He (she, it) had worked We had worked You had worked They had worked
I be He (she, it) be We be You be They be I were He (she, it) were We were You were They were I had been He (she, it) had been We had been You had been They had been
I have He (she, it) have We have You have They have I had He (she, it) had We had You had They had I had had He (she, it) had had We had had You had had They had had

1. Как видно из таблицы, Present Subjunctive по форме совпадает во всех лицах единственного и множественного числа с инфинитивом, и, таким образом, отличается от Present Indefinite отсутствием окончания –s в 3-м лице единственного числа – he (she, it) work.

Поскольку Present Subjunctive совпадает по форме с инфинитивом всех глаголов, от глагола to be Present Subjunctive имеет форму be (для всех лиц единственного и множественного числа), а от глагола to have – форму have (для всех лиц единственного и множественного числа).

2. Как видно из таблицы, Past Subjunctive (от всех глаголов, кроме глагола to be) совпадает по форме во всех лицах единственного и множественного чисда с Past Indefinite изъявительного наклонения.

Past Subjunctive от глагола to be имеет форму were для всех лиц единственного и множественного числа, и, таким образом, отличается от Past Indefinite в 1-м и 3-м лице единственного числа : I were, he (she, it) were, we were, you were, they were.

3. Как видно из таблицы, Past Perfect Subjunctive совпадает (от всех глаголов, включая to be) с Past Perfect изъявительного наклонения.

В первой группе форм сослагательного наклонения существует лишь очень небольшое количество форм сослагательного наклонения, отличных от форм изъявительного наклонения. Но даже из этих немногих форм только форма Past Subjunctive от глагола to bewere – является распространенной. Однако и форма were в разговорной речи часто заменяется в 1-м и 3-м лице единственного числа формой was и, таким образом, иногда и Past Subjunctive от глагола to be полностью совпадает с Past Indefinite изъявительного наклонения.

 

Вторая группа

 

Ко второй группе форм сослагательного наклонения относится сочетание should (со всеми лицами единственного и множественного числа) с Indefinite Infinitive и с Perfect Infinitive.



 

Should + Indefinite Infinitive Should + Perfect Infinitive
  I should work He (she, it) should work We should work You should work They should work   I should have worked He (she, it) should have worked We should have worked You should have worked They should have worked

 

Треться группа

 

К третьей группе форм сослагательного наклонения относится сочетание should (св 1-м лицоме единственного и множественного числа) и would (сво 2-м и 3-м лицомах единственного и множественного числа) c Indefinite Infinitive и Perfect Infinitive. Сочетание should (would) с Indefinite Infinitive совпадает по форме с Future Indefinite in the Past, а с Perfect Infinitive – с Future Perfect in the Past :

 

Should (would) + Indefinite Infinitive Should (would) + Perfect Infinitive
  I should (would) work He (she, it) would work We should (would) work You would work They would work   I should (would) have worked He (she, it) would have worked We should (would) have worked You would have worked They would have worked

 

За этой формой сослагательного наклонения не закреплено какого-нибудь определенного названия. В некоторых английских грамматиках, однако, эта форма называется Conditional Form (сочетание should и would с Indefinite Infinitive) и Perfect Conditional (сочетание should и wouldс Perfect Infinitive)

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Употребление форм сослагательного наклонения

Should+Infinitive and Present Subjunctive

 

Форма should+Infinitiveи Present Subjunctive употребляются в одних и тех же видах придаточных предложений, передают в основном одни и те же значения и, следовательно, являются взаимозаменимыми. Однако Present Subjunctive употребляется главным образом в США. В Англии эта форма встречается редко, чаще всего в официальном языке (в юридических актах и документах); в современном языке во всех стилях речи употребляется преимущественно форма should+Infinitive.

Форма should+Infinitiveи Present Subjunctiveупотребляются в следующих видах предложений:

1. В придаточных предложениях, начинающихся с союзом that после оборотов типа it is necessaryнеобходимо, it is desirable желательно, it is important, it is of importance важно, it is essential существенно, весьма важно, it is vital жизненно важно, it is imperative обязательно, необходимо, it is strange странно, it is surprising удивительно, it is likely вероятно, it is unlikely маловероятно, it is probable вероятно, it is improbable невероятно

 

1. It is necessary that he should take measures at once. It is necessary that he take measures at once. Необходимо, чтобы он немедленно принял меры.
2. It is desirable that everything should be ready at five o’clock. It is desirable that everything be ready at five o’clock. Желательно, чтобы все было готово в пять часов.

NB. Обратите внимание, что форма сослагательного наклонения should+ Infinitive отличается от Present Subjunctive наличием should. Если откинуть should, получится форма Present Subjunctive (take, be).

 

2. В дополнительных придаточных предложениях, зависящих от глаголов to orderприказывать, to demandтребовать, to suggest, to proposeпредлагать, to insist настаивать, to request просить позволения, предписывать, to ask просить, to suggest предлагать, советовать, to recommend рекомендовать, to advise советовать

 

1. We demanded that they should submit the documents without delay. We demanded that they submit the documents without delay. Мы требовали, чтобы они представили документы без задержки.

 

3. В придаточной части условных предложений (т.е. после if) сказуемое может быть выражено формой сослагательного наклонения – сочетанием should (со всеми лицами) с инфинитивом без to. Употребление этой формы вместо Present Indefinite придает условию оттенок меньшей вероятности, но не влияет на перевод предложения на русский язык, т.е. should с инфинитивом, как и Present Indefinite, переводится будущим временем изъявительного наклонения. Союз if в этом случае может быть опущен.

 

1. If he should break the regulation, he will be fined. Should he break the regulation, he will be fined. If he break the regulation, he will be fined.   Ср: If he breaks the regulation, he will be fined.     Если он нарушит постановление (что маловероятно), он будет оштрафован.     Если он нарушит постановление, он будет оштрафован.  

 

Форма should+Infinitive употребляется и в придаточных предложениях условия после if, которые выражают предположения и относятся к будущему. Данные предложения соответствуют в русском языке условным предложениям с глаголом в сослагательном наклонении (глаголом в прошедшем времени с частицей бы). Present Subjunctive в этом случае не употребляется.

 

2. a. If he should come tomorrow, they would be glad. b. Should he come tomorrow, they would be glad.   c. If he came tomorrow, they would be glad.   Если бы он пришел завтра (что маловероятно), они были бы рады   Если бы он пришел завтра, они были бы рады.

Употребление формы should+Infinitive вместо Past Subjunctive придает условию оттенок меньшей вероятности, но не влияет на перевод предложения на русский язык, т.е. эти формы, как и Past Subjunctive, переводятся сослагательным наклонением.

 

4. В придаточных предложениях цели после союзов that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that. После союза lestчтобы не употребляется как форма should + Infinitive, так и Present Subjunctive. Когда же придаточное цели вводится другими союзами типа that, so that, in order that, то употребляется форма should + Infinitive.

 

1. He covered the goods lest they should be damaged by sea water. He covered the goods lest they be damaged by sea water. Он покрыл товары, чтобы они не испортились от морской воды.

 

В придаточных предложениях цели сослагательное наклонение выражается также сочетанием глаголов will (would), may (might), can (could) с инфинитивом. В сочетании с инфинитивом они переводятся сослагательным наклонением.

 

2. The teacher spoke slowly so that his pupils might (can, could, will, would) understand him. Учитель говорил медленно, чтобы ученики понимали его.
3. I wrote down my telephone number for fear that he might forget it. 4. The invitations were sent out early that the delegates might arrive in time for the conference. Я записал номер моего телефона, чтобы он не забыл его.   Приглашения были разосланы заранее, чтобы делегаты прибыли на конференцию вовремя.

 

Past Subjunctive and Past Perfect Subjunctive

 

Past Subjunctiveи Past Perfect Subjunctive употребляются в одних и тех же видах придаточных предложений, но передают разные оттенки значения. Они употребляются:

1. в придаточной части условных предложений («if clause ») для выражения условия, относящего к настоящему или будущему времени (Past Subjunctive), после союзов: if, unless, in case, provided, providing that, on condition that, even though, suppose, supposing

1. If I saw him tomorrow, I should ask him about it. 2a. If I were you, I should tell the truth. 2b. Were I you, I should tell the truth. Если бы я увидел его завтра, я бы спросил его об этом.   Если бы я был на вашем месте, я бы говорил правду.

Для выражения условия, относящего к прошедшему времени (Past Perfect Subjunctive) :

 

1a. If I had seen him yesterday, I should have asked him about it. 1b. Had I seen him yesterday, I should have asked him about it. Если бы я видел его вчера, я спросил бы его об этом.

 

2. в придаточных предложениях образа действия, начинающихся с союза as if (as though) для выражения действия, одновременного с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым главного предложения (Past Subjunctive) :

1. She loves her as if (as though) she were her own daughter. Онa любит ее, как если бы она была ее собственной дочерью.

 

Для выражения действия предшествующего действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым главного предложения (Past Perfect Subjunctive) :

 

2. I remember the story so well as if (as though) I had just read it. Я помню рассказ так хорошо, как будто я его только что прочел.

 

3. в придаточных предложениях, зависящих от глагола to wish для выражения a) пожелания о том, чтобы положение вещей, существующее в момент высказывания, было изменено (Past Subjunctive) ; б) сожаления по поводу упущенной возможности или по поводу совершенного поступка (Past Perfect):

 

1. I wish he were with us.   2. I wish I had gone there yesterday. Как бы я хотел, чтобы он был с нами. (Жаль, что его нет с нами) Как хорошо было бы, если бы я пошел туда вчера. (Жаль, что я не пошел туда вчера.)

NB. После глагола to wish в придаточной части может употребляться конструкция would + Infinitive, которая передает оттенок готовности или настойчивое пожелание говорящего:

3. I wish you would come tomorrow. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы вы пришли завтра.

 

4.В придаточных предложениях, начинающихся с союзом that после оборотов типа it is time (that) пора, it is high time(that) давно пора, употребляется Past Subjunctive :

It is time that you knew the truth. Пришла пора узнать правду

 

5. в независимых высказываниях:

1. If they were here! 2. If I had known it before!   Если бы они были здесь! Если бы я знал это раньше!

Should (would) + Infinitive

1. Форма сослагательного наклонения should (would) + Infinitiveпреимущественно употребляется в главной части условных предложений. Сочетание should (would) с Indefinite Infinitive употребляется в условных предложениях для выражения предположения, относящегося к настоящему или будущему времени, а сочетание should (would) с Perfect Infinitive – в условных предложениях для выражения предположения, относящегося к прошедшему времени:

 

1a. If I saw him tomorrow, I should ask him about it. 1b. If I should see him tomorrow, I should ask him about it. 2. If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 1a. Если бы я увидел его завтра, я бы спросил его об этом. 1b. Перевод на рус. яз. тот же, однако условие содержит оттенок меньщей вероятности 2. Если бы он увидел вас вчера, он бы спросил вас об этом.

В главной части условных предложений значение сослагательного наклонения также выражается сочетанием модальных глаголов might и could с Indefinite Infinitive и с Perfect Infinitive.

 

3. If he were here now, he could (might) help us. 4. If he had been here yesterday, he could (might) have helped us. Если бы он был сейчас здесь, он мог бы помочь нам. Если бы он был здесь вчера, он мог бы помочь вам.

 

Вопрос о том, какие их этих форм следует считать формами наклонения, следует ли их относить к одному или нескольким наклонениями, какие из них следует считать свободным сочетанием модальных глаголов с инфинитивом, является сложным и трактуется по-разному как зарубежными, так и отечественными грамматистами. ТакИногда, сказуемое в придаточном предложении сказуемое иногда бывает выражено сочетанием would с инфинитивом. Глагол would не является в этом случае вспомогательным глаголом, а служит длядля выражения просьбы:

 

5. We should be obliged if you would acknowledge receipt of this letter. 6. We should be grateful if you would send us your catalogue of Diesel engines. Мы были бы обязаны, если бы вы подтвердили (были любезны подтвердить) получение этого письма. Мы были бы благодарны, если бы вы прислали (были любезны прислать) нам ваш каталог дизелей.

 

2. Форма should (would) + Infinitiveупотребляется в независимых предложениях

 

1. I hope he’ll call on us tonight. I should show him these magazines. (if he called on us) Я надеюсь, что он зайдет к нам сегодня вечером. Я бы показал ему эти журналы.
2. Why didn’t you tell me about it ? I should have helped you. (if you had told me)   Почему вы не сказали мне об этом? Я бы вам помог.

 

 

ПРАКТИЧЕСКИЕ ЗАДАНИЯ

PRACTICAL SECTION

Использования форм сослагательного наклонения

Present Subjunctive и should + Infinitive

 

Ex. 1. Complete the following. In many sentences there is more than one possible completion.

Model: Mr. Adams insists that we be careful in writing.

1. They requested that we not __________ after midnight.

2. She demanded that I ___________ her the truth.

3. I recommended that Jane ______________to the head of the department.

4. I suggest that everyone ____________ a letter to the government.

5. It is essential that I ____________ you tomorrow.

6. It is important that he __________ the director of the English program.

7. It is necessary that everyone ____________ here on time.

Ex. 2. Give the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Some of the verbs are passive.

1. Her advisor recommended that she (take) _____________ five courses.

2. He insisted that the new baby (name) ___________after his grandfather.

3. The doctor recommended that she (stay) ____________ in bed for a few days.

4. The students requested that the test (postpone) _________, but the instructor decided against the postponement.

5. I requested that I (permit) ___________ to change my class.

6. It is essential that pollution (control) _________ and eventually (eliminate) ________.

7. It was such a beautiful day that one of the students suggested we (have) ___________ class outside.

8. The movie director insisted that everything about his productions (be) _____________ authentic.

9. It is vital that no one else (know) __________ about the secret government operation.

10. She asked that we (be) ____________ sure to lock the door behind us.

11. It is essential that no one (admit) _____________ to the room without proper identification.

12. It is important that you (be, not) ___________ late.

13. It is imperative that he (return) ____________ home immediately.

14. The governor proposed that a new highway (build) _____________ .

15.She specifically asked that I (tell, not) ______________ anyone else about it. She said it was very important that no one else (tell) ________________ about it.

Ex. 3.Transform the following sentences using the verbs: to suggest, to demand etc.

 

Pattern: I ask you to look through the obtained data thoroughly.

I request that you (should) look through the obtained data thoroughly.

 

1. Our advice is to reserve the word “distribution” for the open interval and to use the terminology “continuous linear functional” for the closed interval.

2. His suggestion was: first we allow S to include only Φ (x) and not all continuous (x)

3. He said: “The problem must be recognised for two-dimensional case”.

4. It was recommended for him to begin solving the task with a particular case.

5. His proposal was to re-examine the definition of potential energy before discussing stability or instability.

6. The lecturer asked the student to give the precise and definite description of the case.

7. Only logarithmic plots for each point are suggested to be made.

8. The solution for the problem is unlikely to occur under the terms in question.

9.The atomic energy is natural to be used for industrial purposes.

Ex. 4. Replace the simple sentences with the For-phrase with the complex ones with the complex ones using the Subjunctive Mood and translate into Russian:

1. It is necessary for us to consider the properties of the computing units used when choosing the time scale.

2. It is essentialnecessary for the parametric equations of the transformation to be written in the form (3.50).

3. It is required for a positive constant to admit travelling waves into the mat.

4. In order to approximate the linear region, it is necessary for a single row of vortices which travels in the X-direction as shown in figure 3 to be useful.

5. It is desirable for computers to give us new qualitative and quantitative information on non-linear systems in a highly effective manner.

6. It is impossible for errors arising in the course of the computation to be divided into three types in these cases.

7. It is necessary for the same mathematical axioms, which give rise to different sets of theorems, to be explicit.

8. It is important for us to review Euclid’s contribution to number theory.

9. It is necessary for essence of the properties of matter to be understood for constructing new physically justified and practically necessary models.

10. It is possible for the probability laws to be classified into families on the basis of similar functional forms.

11. It is possible for any probability to be expressed by a real number.

12. It is possible for mathematical sentences to be written as open sentences.

13. It is convenient for some auxiliary signs and symbols to be introduced into the alphabet of a formalized theory.

14.It is important for the program introduced to be carefully examined.

Ex. 5. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the Subjunctive Mood:

1. Возможно, что теорема Ферма неразрешима в рамках теории чисел.

2. Возможно, чтобы вид этого уравнения был достаточно удобным,

3. Существенно, что квадратичная форма в случае с положительными коэффициентами имеет место.

4. Желательно, чтобы этот метод был усовершенствован.

5. Необходимо, чтобы эта функция была ограничена на бесконечности.

6. Возможно, что они получили нужные результаты.

7. Очень важно, чтобы они пришли к единому мнению.

8. Необходимо, чтобы студенты изучали иностранный язык.

9. Желательно, чтобы результаты исследования были получены как можно скорее.

10. Необходимо, чтобы эта проблема была решена разными способами.

 

Ex. 6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the Subjunctive Mood:

1. Очень важно, чтобы он пришел вовремя.

2. Необходимо, чтобы мы знали основные законы природы.

3. Важно, чтобы они присутствовали на конференции.

4. Необходимо, чтобы этапы работы были хорошо проанализированы.

5. Необходимо, чтобы эта теорема была доказана.

6. Желательно, чтобы задание еще раз было проанализировано.

7.Необходимо, чтобы все необходимые операции были выполнены на компьютере.

Ex. 7. Replace the simple sentences with the complex ones using the Subjunctive Mood:

1. He ordered every possible chance to be taken into consideration.

2. They proposed us to use the data obtained at once.

3. The supervisor suggestedadvised him to prepare his report properly.

4. Many parents wantadvise their children to be admitted toenter Novosibirsk State University.

5. We require thevalid given law formulae to be valid hold in every domainevery domain.

6. We wantinsist upon the calculation to proceed as fast as possible so as to reduce the time required for the investigation of the given problem to the absolute minimum.

7. We require the transformation rules to be such that it is merely a mechanical procedure to determine whether or not a given sequence of formulas is a proof.

8. The professor wantedrequested his post-graduate students to take part in his research.

9. I’d like them proposed them to realize their importance of their assistance plans.

10. They supposed us to take part in this conference.

 

Использование форм сослагательного наклонения

Past Subjunctive, Past Perfect Subjunctive

should (would) + Indefinite (or Perfect) Infinitive

Ex. 1 Translate the sentences into Russian and analyse the forms of the Subjunctive Mood.

a) 1. If the model fits well, the observed data will be correct.

2. One will easily calculate he volume, if he knows the dimensions of the body.

3. Provided one knows the rate of the emission, one can determine the range of the particles.

4. This states that if a is included in b, then everything that is in both a and b is the whole of b.

5. Unless the cathode C is water cooled, it will overheat and emit gases.

6. If you should see him, ask him to wait.

7. If there should be a solution for this problem, it will be of great importance for applied math.

8. If the content of this volume should prove of any assistance to the students, the author will feel amply rewarded.

9. If the force x be increased by the factor z, all the velocities will be increased.

10. If the distance to the star be known, its candle power can be judged from its apparent brightness.

11. If the available information be reliable, the conclusions will be drawn on its basis.

12. If you will wait a few minutes, the Dean will see you without your making appointment.

13. We’ll catch the earlier train if you will drive us to the station.

ba) 1. It wouldn’t do you any harm if you did this exercise a second time.

2. You would never say he is ill-natured if you knew him better.

3. If this book were more interesting, it would be in greater demand.

4. If my friend were in Moscow now, he could show me round the city.

5. If you studied English, you would pass the exam the next semester.

cb) 1. If I had known that you would be hurt I would never have told you about it.

2. If my grandfather had had a chance to study, he would have been a great man, I am sure.

3. I had to walk from the station. If I had had more money on me, I could have hired a taxi.

4. If he had come a minute later, he would have missed the train.

5. They would have succeeded in operating this program, if the appropriate software had been installed.

dc) 1. He would feel very much hurt if you failed to come to his birthday party.

2. I could have tried to cheer her up if I had known that she was in trouble.

3. If by chance the weather were fine tomorrow, I would wear this suit.

4. If I came across a plain blue dress while shopping I shouldn’t hesitate to buy it.

5. If you had studied properly last year, you wouldn’t have made those mistakes.

6. If Mr. Smith were more experienced, he would work better.

Ex. 2. Change the subordinate clauses omitting the conjunctionif :

1. If I were in Moscow now, I should also be able to hear the famous Italian singer.

2. You shouldn’t make these foolish mistakes if you were more attentive to your work.

3. If that engineer had had a greater sense of responsibility, this question wouldn’t have been under consideration so long.

4. This question would have been raised long ago if they had attended to the matter properly.

5.If there had been many schools in the area, the Burnells would not have sent their girls to mix with poor children.

Ex. 3. Translate into Russian

1. They would have reached the top of the mountain before dark if they had started yesterday.

2. I should come and see you off if I didn’t live so far away.

3. If I had had no luggage we should have walked home.

4. If the weather hadn’t been so bad, the plane would have taken off at ten o’clock.

5. If three machines were ordered the price would be reduced.

6. If I had known it I could have helped them.

7. They could have reached the town earlier if they had walked faster.

8. Had I time I should learn French.

9. The accident might not have occurred had they been more careful.

10. Should he come ask him to wait.

11. Had they called at the office yesterday, they wouldn’t have found me there.

12. Were I in his place I should refuse to go there.

13. Were he in town he would help us.

14. I should be very grateful if you would send me the application form to submit.

15. If they should meet him, they would invite him to the meeting.

16. He would be obliged if you would read his project and write a recommendation.

17. Where have you been all this time? You might have phoned us!

18. If they had come to see her! She wouldn’t have left forever.

19.

20. He felt as if he had travelled a great many miles to be ignored like this.

21. It was as if they doubted whether he had the money to pay for his meal.

22.Right or wrong. That’s what she talks about. As if she knew.

Ex. 4. Translate into Russian paying attention to tense forms following wish.

  1. I wish I could speak several foreign languages.
  2. She began to wish she hadn’t said it.
  3. I wish I had a car of my own.
  4. I wish you would be more careful in future.
  5. He wished he had told them all the truth.
  6. I wish I could help you.
  7. We wish you wouldn’t bring your friends to our house at two o’clock in the morning.
  8. She suddenly wished she were at home and in bed.

 

Ex. 5. Translate from Russian into English.

  1. Жаль, что я последовал его совету.
  2. Жаль, что я не последовал его совету,
  3. Жаль, что вы ушли так рано.
  4. Он пожалел, что пришел.
  5. Он пожалел, что не пришел.
  6. Я жалею, что пригласил ее.
  7. Я жалею, что не пригласил ее.
  8. Мне очень хотелось бы, чтобы мы посмотрели выставку вместе.
  9. Жаль, что тебя не будет на конференции.
  10. Как жаль, чтобы мы не купили этот альбом в Сан-Франциско.

Ex. 6. Rewrite these sentences using It’s high time.

  1. It’s getting late. We ought to be leaving.
  2. Please, hurry up!
  3. He should be aware of these rules by now.
  4. Jim should find himself a regular job.
  5. Jack hasn’t finished his speech. Everybody is bored to death.
  6. You’re not a child! You ought to know the difference between the joke and insult.

 

The Subjunctive Mood means that the speaker considers the activity as presupposed or desirable, not as a real fact. In Russian, there is only one form of subjunctive mood, i.e. the verb in the past associated with the particle бы (пошел бы, сделал бы). In English, the subjunctive mood is expressed by means of various forms.

Forms of Subjunctive Mood

Group I

PresentSubjunctive Past Subjunctive Past Perfect Subjunctive
  I work He (she, it) work We work You work They work   I worked He (she, it) worked We worked You worked They worked   I had worked He (she, it) had worked We had worked You had worked They had worked
  I be He (she, it) be We be You be They be   I were He (she, it) were We were You were They were   I had been He (she, it) had been We had been You had been They had been
  I have He (she, it) have We have You have They have   I had He (she, it) had We had You had They had   I had had He (she, it) had had We had had You had had They had had

 

Group II

Should + Indefinite Infinitive Should + Perfect Infinitive
  I should work He (she, it) should work We should work You should work They should work   I should have worked He (she, it) should have worked We should have worked You should have worked They should have worked

 

Group III

Should (would) + Indefinite Infinitive Should (would) + Perfect Infinitive
  I should work He (she, it) would work We should work You would work They would work   I should have worked He (she, it) would have worked We should have worked You would have worked They would have worked

 

1. after it is necessary, it is desirable, it is important

 

It is necessary that he should take measures at once.

It is necessary that he take measures at once.

 

It is desirable that everything should be ready at five o’clock.

It is desirable that everything be ready at five o’clock.

2. in subordinate clauses after the verbs to orderприказывать, to demandтребовать, to suggestпредлагать

 

We demanded that they should submit the documents without delay. We demanded that they submit the documents without delay. Мы требовали, чтобы они представили документы без задержки.

 

3. in conditional clauses

 

If he should break the regulation, he will be fined. If he break the regulation, he will be fined.   Если он нарушит постановление, он будет оштрафован.
If he should come, we should be glad. Если бы он пришел, мы были бы рады

 

4. in subordinate clauses of purpose: should+ Infinitive

lest (чтобы не) + should +Infinitive (or Present Subjunctive)

 

He covered the goods lest they should be damaged by sea water. He covered the goods lest they be damaged by sea water. Он покрыл товары, ятбы они не попортились от морской воды.
  The teacher spoke slowly so that his pupils might (could, would) understand him.   Учитель говорил медленно, чтобы ученики понимали его,

Ex. 7. In the dialogue below, put the words in brackets in an appropriate form of the subjunctive mood.

Mary: I wish we (1. not to have) to go out tonight, but we have no choice. I (2. to like) to stay in and watch television. If only your boss (3. not to invite) us!

John: I know, but it’s important. It (4. to be) bearable if he (5. not to speak) all night about how wonderful his children are, but he always does. He talks as if they (6. to be) angels, and they are absolutely horrible!

Mary: Listen! Suppose we (7. to call) them and (8. to say) that our car is out of order.

John: No, I’d rather we (9. to go). Just try to look as if you (10. to enjoy) yourself.

Jim: Hello, dear. You look as if you (11. to need) a drink. What’s the matter?

Liz: It’s Annie at the office. She behaves as though she (12. to be) the only who knows how to work. I (13. not to mind) if she (14. to listen) to other people sometimes!

Jim: What if you just (15. to ignore) her? Do you think that (16. to work)?

Liz: That (17. to work) if she (18. to have) any brains, and she hasn’t!

Jim: Liz, I wish you (19. to calm down) a little. There’s no need to worry.

Rita: I was given three new projects today. As if I (20. not to have) enough to do already! I had to accept them, but I really wish I (21. to refuse).

Bill: What (22. to happen) if you (23. to refuse)?

Rita: They (24. to fire) me. And I think this (25. to be) better for me!

Bill: Don’t get mad! I wish you (26. to calm down) a bit.

Rita: If only I (27. can)! The boss makes me work as if he (28. to pay) me a hundred thousand, and it’s only thirty-five!

Review

Ex. 1. Open the parentheses using the Subjunctive Mood.

1. It is essential that this method (to be recommended).

2. If the distance between two points (to be the same, no further experiments (to be necessary).

3. I wrote down the figures of the experiment lest I (to forget) them.

4. In former case a suitable notation (to be).

5. In order that the second equation (to be satisfied), we must have the following condition.

6. It is important that we (to consider) carefully the actual observations.

7. They feared lest something (to be wrong) with the program.

8. If you (to know) the character of the forces acting on the rocket, you (determine) easily the path of the rocket relative to the earth’s surface.

9. He suggested that the details of the exact relationship between the resulting change in motion and the applied forces (to be considered) in a later chapter.

10. It is desirable that the moving body under consideration (to be idealized) as a particle.

11. The discussion here will be limited to a single particle, so it will be assumed in every case that the body in question can be treated as if it (to be) a particle.

12. If we imagine a man walking on the floor of the rotating merry-go-round, he (to have) certain relative velocity and acceleration components with respect to the axes painted on the floor and different absolute velocity and acceleration components referred to axes fastened to the earth.

13.If t (not to be) required to be a regular coordinate, we could set t=z, provided that there (to be) a single value of z for each point on the curve and vice versa.


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