Subjunctive II is used independently of other clauses to express:
we had better /not/ do smth
e.g. It’s getting dark. You had better switch on the light.
we would rather/sooner/ do smth
you would rather/sooner/ not do smth
e.g. I would rather (я бы предпочёл) stay at home.
But: I would rather you stayed at home. I would rather you had stayed at home yesterday.
c) unreal wish (if only more emphatic than I wish)
If only smb did smth/ /could do smth/
e.g. If only I could help you. If only I were there now.
If only smb had done smth/could have done smth/
e.g. If only he had not missed the chance.
II. The object clause.
Subjunctive II is used in object clauses after the verb to wish to express an unreal desired action.
I wish smb were
I wished smb asked
smb had been
e.g. I wish it were summer now. – Жаль, что сейчас не лето. (Хотелось бы, чтобы сейчас было лето.) = to express regret about present situation
I wish you had been there with us. – Жаль, что вас там не было с нами. = to express regret about past
If the desired action refers to the future the following forms are used after to wish:
would/could + infinitive
e.g. I wish I could skate. – Жаль, что я не смогу покататься на коньках.
I wish you would stop smoking (wish + would=how we would like smb. to behave in future. This expresses annoyance with a person or situation and a desire for a situation to change, either now or in future)
III. The predicative clauses.
Subjunctive II is used in predicative clauses after the link verbs. The conjunctions as if and as though are used to connect the principle and the predicative clauses.
to be smb were
to feel as if/ as though smb had been
to look smb did smth
to sound smb had done smth
e.g. You look as if you didn’t know anything. He looks as if he hadn’t slept at night.
IV. The adverbial clauses of comparison.
Subjunctive II is used in adverbial clause of comparison after the conjunctions as if and as though.
do smth as if/as though smb were/had been/did smth/had done smth/
e.g. He smiled as if he were glad to see me. He behaved as if nothing had happened.
V. The adverbial clauses of purpose.
Subjunctive II is used in adverbial clauses of purpose after the conjunctions so that, in order that, in case, lest. In this type of clauses the form of subjunctive II of the modal verbs can and may is most often used.
do smth so that/in order that/in case/lest/ smb might/could do smth /, smb did smth
e.g. Put down my telephone number so that you could get in touch with me whenever you want.
VI. The attributive clauses.
Subjunctive II is used in attributive clauses after the expressions it’s time, it’s about time, it’s high time.
it’s time smb were/did
e.g. It’s time you went to bed. It’s high time he were here.
The adverbial clauses of concession. Subjunctive II is used in adverbial clauses of concession after the conjunctions even if(даже если, хотя), even though(даже если, хотя).
do smth even if/ even though smb were/did smth/ had done smth
e.g. Even if he were free, he wouldn’t go with us.
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