After Russia defeated Sweden it became one of Europe's strongest powers. Great changes took place in its economy, the level of cultural development and system of government. Peter the Great enjoyed boundless power. He ruled the country with the help of a large body of officials which was selected from among the nobles.
It was impossible to govern the country and command the army and navy without educated people. At the orders of Peter the Great schools were started to teach the children of the nobility mathematics, the handling of ships and artillery, medicine and foreign languages. Some people were sent to continue their education in Britain, Holland or France. The tsar liked to promote capable and gifted people from other classes as well.
Commerce and trade with other countries developed. Russia began to have a greater influence on international affairs. All the new changes in the country were ordered by Peter the Great and he himself took a hand in carrying them out. In many respects he was very unlike other tsars who had ruled Russia before him. He was an outstanding statesman and a brilliant military leader who took part in many battles on land and sea. He was well educated for those times, having a good knowledge of mathematics, artillery and ships. He was also a good turner, carpenter, locksmith and blacksmith. Still, he was an aristocratic ruler. He was often rough and cruel.
Thousands of serfs were forced to work at factories, dig canals and build cities. They were also forced to serve in the army. The peasant serfs, poor townspeople and oppressed peoples rebelled time and again.
VІ. Виконання післятекстових вправ.
1. Доберіть англійські відповідники до поданих слів:
1) nobles A) комерція
2) navy B) городяни
3) statesman C) слюсар
4) government D) коваль
5) officials E) уряд
6) commerce F) селянин
7) locksmith G) чиновники
8) peasant H)військово-морський флот
9 ) blacksmith I) аристократія
10) townspeople J) державний діяч
2. Установіть відповідність між терміном та дефініцією:
|1) order||A) the act or process of growing, progressing|
|2) international affairs||B) a large body of people organized and trained for land warfare|
|3) development||C) one, such as a monarch or dictator, that rules or governs|
|4) nobility||D) the act or process of acquiring knowledge, especially systematically during childhood and adolescence|
|5) army||E) the complex of human activities concerned with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services|
|6) ruler||F) the emperor of Russia until 1917|
|7) education||G) a member of a class of small farmers or farm laborers of low social rank|
|8) economy||H) an authoritative indication to be obeyed; a command or direction|
|9 ) tsar||I) occurrences, events, matters or affairs between nations|
|10) peasant||J) a socially or politically privileged class whose titles are conferred by descent or by royal decree|
3. Дайте відповіді на питання:
1) When did Russia become one of Europe's strongest powers?
2) What were changes in Russia under Peter the Great?
3) Who helped Peter the Great in governing the country?
4) Why did Peter the Great start to teach the children of the nobility mathematics, the handling of ships and artillery, medicine and foreign languages?
5) What people did the tsar like to promote?
6) Why did Russia begin to have a greater influence on international affairs?
7) What were the characteristics of Peter the Great?
8) Who were forced to work at factories, dig canals and build cities?
9) Serfs served in the Russian army, didn’t they?
10) Why did peasant serfs, poor townspeople revolt?
4. Складіть анотацію до тексту (дивіться План анотації).
The head-line of the article (material) is…
The material is written by…
The article was published in “The Times”, 7th June, 2005.
The source of the material is…
The article is about…
The material is devoted to…
The article deals with…
The author in the article raises a very serious (important, urgent) problem, concerning…
At first (firstly) the author gives information about…
Then the narrator writes about…
Finally he/she concludes that…
It is going to be interesting for…
1. Барановська Т.В. Граматика англійської мови. Збірник вправ /
Т.В. Барановська. – К.: ВП Логос-М, 2008. – 384 с.
2. Верба Л.Г. Граматика сучасної англійської мови/ Л.Г. Верба, Г.В. Верба. – К.: ТОВ Логос-М, 2007. – 352 с.
Практичне заняття №4
Тема заняття: Риси характеру людини
І. Розповідь про особливості характеру за допомогою словника. Написання позитивної та негативної характеристики людини.
1. Затранскрибуйте та перекладіть назви рис характеру людини українською мовою
|Positive Personality Traits||Negative Personality Traits|
|Adventurous Affable Conscientious Cultured Dependable Discreet Fair Fearless Observant Impartial Independent Optimistic Intelligent Keen Gragarious Persistent Capable Charming Precise Confident Dutiful Encouraging Reliable Exuberant Helpful Humble Suave Imaginative Meticulous Obedient Trusting Valiant||Lazу Picky Sullen Pompous Dishonesty Finicky Sarcastic Arrogant Cowardly Sneaky Rude Quarrelsome Impulsive Slovenly Self-centered Boorish Surly Unfriendly Unruly Thoughless Stingy Bossy Vulgar Malicious Conceited Obnoxious|
2. Опишіть характер людини, яку ви знаєте, використовуючи слова з першої або другої колонки (відповідати усно).
3. Поєднайте слова з їх визначеннями:
|А) Openness||1. involves going out with friends and being energetic|
|B) Conscientiousness||2. appreciation for a variety of experience|
|C) Extraversion||3. planning ahead rather than being spontaneous|
|D) Neuroticism||4. being agreeable|
|E) Agreeableness||5. refers to worrying or being vulnerable|
4.Дайте відповіді на запитання.
1. Would you feel embarrassed or upset if you forgot your mother’s or your father’s birthday?
2.Do you ever feel frightened in a car (as a passenger) because you are going very fast?
3.Do you get angry when other people want you to do things that you don’t want to do?
4.If you made a stupid mistake in English, would you feel embarrassed?
5.Is there anything that you are very proud of?
6.Are there any common situations where you sometimes feel embarrassed?
ІІ. Робота з граматичним матеріалом: Артикль. Означений та неозначений артикль. Вживання артиклів.
|Неозначений артикль a (an) вживається: · Тільки перед злічуваними іменниками у однині · При згадуванні предмета уперше: This is a book. The book is on the table. · Перед назвами професій: She is adoctor. · перед деякими числівниками: a million, a hundred, a half, a third · в окличних реченнях після слова What: What a fine day! · після слів: such, quite: It was such a cold day yestetday||Oзначений артикль the вживається: · злічуваними і незлічуваними іменниками у однині та множині · якщо іменник позначає єдиний у світі предмет: the sun, the earth · якщо іменник позначає предмет, про який йде мова у даній ситуації: Put the pen on the table. · перед порядковими числівниками: My flat is on the second floor. · перед найвищими ступенем порівняння прикметника: It is thebiggest cinema in Moscow. · перед назвами морів, рік, каналів, океанів, пустель, гір; країн, регіонів, груп островів в множині: the Alps, the Atlantic Ocean, the USA, the Bahamas, The Netherlands.|
|REMEMBER!!! To the cinema at the cinema To the shop at the shop To the theater at the theater To the market at the market In the south In the north In the west In the east||To the left To the right BUT: in front In the middle In the corner In the morning In the evening BUT: at half past five In the afternoon at night to play the piano BUT: to play football to play the violin BUT: to play chess|
ІII. Виконання граматичних вправ.
1.Вставте артикль, де необхідно:
1.This is … clock. 2. This is … Kiev. 3. … Kiev is … big city. 4. Mary is … girl. 5. She is … my sister. 6. This is … room. 7. Is … newspaper in … bag? 8. She is in … room. 9. Is … teacher in … classroom? 10. Is … your room large? 11. Is … pen in … bag? 12. Are you … students? 13. My friend has … children. 14. … sportsmen are always in good form. 15. … children we saw in … street are schoolboys. 16. She lives in … 1st street.
2.Заповніть пропуски у тексті:
At... beginning of ... 19th century ... little boy was born in ... family of John Dickens, ... clerk at ... office in ... Portsmouth, and was named Charles. He had ... sister who was older than himself, arid there were several other children in ... family. When Charles was seven, he was sent to ... school. He was not... strong child. He did not like to play ... cricket or .. football and spent all his free time reading. In 1821 ... family went to ... London and little Charles left behind him ... happiest years of his childhood. His father was in ... money difficulties, and ... family became poorer and poorer. ... boy had to give up his studios. Mr. Dickens was put into ... debtors' prison. Little Charles learned to know all ., horrors and cruelty of ... large capitalist city. He had to go to work at... blacking factory. He worked there from ... morning till ... night. When his father came out of prison, Charles was sent to ... school for some time. Soon he got work as ... clerk. Then he learned ... stenography and became ... reporter; in Parliament. In 1836 at... age of 24 Charles Dickens published his first book. It was ... collection of ... stories. ... title of ... book was "Sketches by Boz." There were followed by "Pickwick Papers" and "Oliver Twist" and many other famous novels. Charles Dickens is one of ... greatest writers of ... 19th. century. His novels are now translated into most languages of ... world.
3.Вставте артикль, де необхідно:
We are in (1)... Scotland. Its capital is (2)... Edinburgh. It is one of (3)... most beautiful cities in (4)... Great Britain. There are (5)... many places of interest here. (6)... monument to (7)... Walter Scott is in (8)... centre of (9)... city. (10) ... National Gallery of Scotland is also situated in (11)... centre. There is (12)... fine collection of (13)... pictures in (14)... gallery. (15)... Glasgow is (16) ... greatest city in (17)... Scotland. Scotland is (18) ... land of (19)... lakes. They are called “Lochs” there. Let us go now to (20)... Loch Lomond. What (21)... beautiful lake it is!
4.Вставте артикль, звертаючи увагу на географічні назви:
During our unforgettable tour across ___ Europe we visited many countries: ___ France, ___ Belgium and ____ Netherlands in ___ Western Europe; ___ Spain and ___ Italy in ___Southern Europe; ___ Poland and ___Belarus in ___ Eastern Europe. The country I liked most of all was ___ amazing Italy. I got to know much about its history and culture. During the numerous excursions, I learned that ___ Medieval Italy was a real center of art. The capital city of ___ Italy is ___Rome. It is a city that is full of history. Walking in its streets you can easily imagine ___ Rome of ancient times, because there are a lot of historical evidence of those times. ___ Rome of today is a modern beautiful city with charming and hospitable inhabitants and a lot of tourists that are eager to do the sightseeing and to visit ___ Vatican. Next year I want to visit ____ South America and to ____ Buenos Aires in____Argentine.
V. Робота з текстом за професійним спрямуванням.
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