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Complex Sentences. 1. In subject clauses introduced by the anticipatory it we find the suppositional mood or subjunctive one.

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  1. A Read the text again quickly and complete sentences 1-6.
  2. A) Order the words to make sentences.
  3. A). Look at the calendar which shows his arrangements for the next few months and then make up sentences, as in the example.
  4. A. Match the questions and answers. Complete the sentences.
  5. A. Rewrite the sentences without using the underlined words. Keep the meaning the same.
  6. Analyse and translate the following sentences
  7. Are these sentences correct or incorrect?

1. In subject clauses introduced by the anticipatory it we find the suppositional mood or subjunctive one.

It is strange that he should say such a thing.

It is natural that he should be upset.

The suppositional mood is used in such subject clauses:

It is funny that…

It is odd that…

It is terrible that..

It is incredible…

It is surprising that…

It is disappointing…

It expresses your emotional attitude to the statement. Some grammarians call it emotional supposition.

It is odd that he should have fallen off here.

b) It is necessary that he should do it.

It is strange…

It is obligatory…

It is requested….

It is suggested…

It is ordered…

In such sentences the suppositional Mood is used.

Subjunctive one is found in the sentences of the kind in newspapers, documents.

It was arranged that the article be published.

It is possible

It is probable

It is likely

In such affirmative sentences the modal verb may is used.

Ex.: It is possible that he may have taken the book.

In negative and interrogative sentences the Suppositional Mood is used.

It is impossible that he should have taken the book from the library.

If ‘is it possible’ expresses surprise at something having happened, the indicative mood is used.

Ex.: Is it possible that she has gone home!

After the expressions it is high time…., subjunctive two or the suppositional is used.

It is about time we went there.

It is high time you made up your mind.

It is about time you should go there.

2.In object clauses :

a) After expression of order, recommendation or suggestion we find the suppositional or subjunctive one.

Do you suggest that we should go there! (an object clause)

The girl insisted that she should make it up with her. (The suppositional mood, only present)

A resolution was passed that all should take (take) part in the work of the conference.

b). After expressions of wish we find subjunctive two:

Ex.: I wish you were here.

Ex.: I wish you were not married. (the speaker regrets it)

Ex.: (Have you any idea what to do?)

Ex.: I wish I had some idea.

Ex.: I wish I knew French.

Ex.: I wish I had said it. (Subjunctive two past expresses priority)

2. I wish he would do it. (The fulfillment of the action depends on the will of the person represented by the subjunctive of the subordinate clause).

3. I wish I could do it. (for the past)

He wishes he might get the book. (for the past)

I wish you may buy the book.(for the present)

The fulfillment of the action depends on circumstances, realization is very unlikely.

I wish you might have read this book. This use of the modal verb ‘might’ and the perfect infinitive shows that the action was not realized in the past.

c) After expressions of fear the suppositional mood is used if the object clause is introduced by the conjunction lest.

Ex.: She feared lest something should happen to him.

Ex.: I am afraid lest they should come late.

Ex.: I am afraid that they would be late.

Ex.: She is worried lest they should know the poem.

Ex.: I am astonished that she should have done it.

2. The Indicative Mood is used after expressions of fear such as:

To be afraid

To be terrified

To be fearful

To be frightened

To be nervous

To be troubled

To be in terror

To fear, to tremble, to have apprehension and some others

in object clauses, introduced by conjunction that or joined asyndetically. The rules of Sequence of tenses are observed.

Ex.: She fears that she will be blamed.

Ex.: I am afraid nothing has happened.

Ex.: She was afraid he might miss his only chance.

3.In adverbial clauses of purpose introduced by the conjunction lest we find the suppositional mood.

Ex.: She was afraid to speak to him lest he should lose his temper.

‘Lest’ is no longer in use in spoken English.

Ex.: I sent her a letter so that it should remind her of her promise or

Ex.: I sent her a letter so as to remind her of her promise.

Ex.: I wrote it not to forget it.

Ex.: I wrote it down so that she should remember it better.

Ex.: He removed the electric bulb so that the light should be dim.

Ex.: I dictated the rule so that they could take it down.

Ex.: Earnest got up early during the holidays so that he might play the piano after breakfast.

4.In adverbial clauses of comparison and manner we find subjunctive two.

Ex.: She talks as if she were a doctor.

Ex.: I saw her yesterday and she looked as if she knew about it.

Ex.: She spoke to her as if he knew her well.

Ex.: I feel as if I had known you all my life. (contrary to reality, priority)

There is no stylistic difference between ‘As if, as though’

Ex.: When I meet her tomorrow she will speak to me as if she had never quarreled with me.

The Indicative Mood is very often used to express real fact, real comparison.

Ex.: You feel as if you are not hunting but being hunted.

Ex.: You look as if you have spoken to her.

Ex.: I feel as if I had been jumped on by an elephant.

(the predicative clauses are used after to look, to feel, to sound.)

5.In adverbial clauses of concession introduced by though, although, however, whatever, whichever, even if, even though the following moods are used:

a) Subjunctive two is used after the conjunctions even if, even though or the suppositional with the reference to the future in the principal clause.

Ex.: Even if I hadn’t seen this picture, I should have known you anywhere as an artist.

Ex.: Even though he were present, he would not help me!

Ex.: Though he should make every effort, he cannot succeed.

b) Subjunctive one or the suppositional mood is used after though, whatever, whoever.

Ex.: Whatever he should say, we must not listen to him.

Ex.: Whoever you be, you have no right to do such a thing.

The suppositional mood with reference to the future represents an action as imaginable and is mostly used in adverbial clauses of concession introduced by though, although.

May(might) +inf. is used when the concession is uncertain and refers to the present or future.

Ex.: However tired he may(might) be he will go there.

Ex.: No matter how tired he may (might) be, he will go to the concert.

Ex.: Whatever the reason may be the fact remains.

(No suppositional mood is used with reference to the present or future.)

When concession is not regarded as contrary to fact or problematic –the Indicative Mood is used.

Ex.: But even if he has been wicked… think how young he is. (Dickens)

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