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December 1944 - Convention on International Civil Aviation

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Урок 5

Система ООН

History of the UN

 

Упражнение 1. Прочитайте, переведите текст, уделяя особое внимание аббревиатурам и активной лексике по теме ООН. Подготовьте реферат по истории создания ИКАО на основе данной статьи

The International Civil Aviation Organization

December 1944 - Convention on International Civil Aviation

In December 1944, delegates from 52 States met in Chicago, Illinois and agreed upon the Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as Chicago Convention). This agreement was signed on 7 December 1944 and formed the basis of air law both domestically and internationally.

A. THE CHICAGO CONFERENCE

In the early months of 1944 the United States initiated a series of exploratory discussions with other governments interested in the development of international civil aviation. These discussions revealed sufficient agreement among the principal air powers to justify the expectation that "final dispositions" could be reached at an international conference. Accordingly, the United States issued invitations to 55 allied and neutral states to meet in Chicago on November 1, 1944. Fifty-two nations accepted the invitation.

The deliberations of the representatives of these nations at Chicago resulted in the adoption of a number of resolutions and recommendations constituting the Final Act of the Conference. The Final Act contained the texts of a Convention on International Civil Aviation, an International Air Services Transit (Two Freedoms) Agreement, an International Air Transport (Five Freedoms) Agreement and an Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation. Previously, in 1919, the Paris Convention had established the International Commission for Air Navigation, which set up standards on technical matters. In 1928 the Pan-American Convention on Air Navigation was drawn up at Havana and pledged members to observe certain principles, including that of freedom of air passage, in their dealings with one another. The Paris and Havana Conventions were no longer considered adequate to meet the present situation in the air resulting from the enormous development of flight during the war.

The Interim Agreement provided that a Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization be established, with headquarters in Canada, to operate until the coming into force of the permanent Organization. PICAO came into being on June 6, 1945, when 26 states had ratified the Interim Agreement. The provisional organization was governed by an Interim Assembly and an Interim Council. The structure and functions of these organs correspond to those of the Assembly and Council of ICAO.

A Canadian Preparatory Committee was formed in June 1945 to make all necessary arrangements for the first session of PICAO. The Committee selected Montreal, because of its accessibility by air transport, as the most suitable Canadian city for the site of the Organization. It set August 15, 1945, as the date for the opening of the first session of the Interim Council.

The Interim Council, which remained in substantially continuous session from August 15, 1945, to April 2, 1947, in turn arranged for the calling of the first session of the Interim Assembly in Montreal, beginning May 21, 1946. The Interim Assembly was in session until June 7, 1946. It was attended by representatives of the Governments of 44 member States of PICAO. In addition, observers from ten nonmember States and from eight international organizations attended the first session of the Interim Assembly. The Interim Assembly adopted a total of 53 resolutions. In addition to administrative and budgetary questions, it dealt with a number of substantive matters such as development of a multilateral agreement on commercial rights in international civil air transport; facilitation of international air transport; draft conventions on private international air law; problems of international air mail; statistical reporting forms; PICAO recommendations for standards, practices and procedures; unification of numbering and systems of dimensioning; convention on recordation of titles to aircraft and aircraft mortgages; amendments to the Warsaw convention.

The Interim Assembly chose Montreal, Canada, as the permanent site of ICAO's headquarters. The Interim Assembly authorized the Interim Council to enter into negotiations with the United Nations with a view to concluding an agreement defining the relationship between the two organizations. Accordingly, an agreement between the United Nations and ICAO was drawn up by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and a negotiating delegation of PICAO. On October 3, 1946, the agreement was recommended by the Economic and Social Council to the General Assembly of the United Nations for approval. The General Assembly, on December 14, approved the agreement with ICAO provided that "that Organization complies with any decision of the General Assembly regarding Franco Spain." In its resolution condemning the Franco regime, the General Assembly had recommended, among other matters, "that the Franco Government of Spain be debarred from membership in international agencies established by or brought into relationship with the United Nations." The agreement, as approved by the General Assembly, was recommended for approval by the Interim Council to the first session of the ICAO Assembly when the permanent Organization came into being.



During its 20 months of existence, PICAO brought about concerted action by the nations of the world in the organization and maintenance of facilities and services necessary for international air transport. Patterns for meteorological services, traffic control, communications, radio beacons, and the other facilities required for safe international flight were evolved through the co-operative action of PICAO and its member States.

An example of the assistance rendered by PICAO is the provision of air navigation facilities in the North Atlantic region. A North Atlantic regional air navigation meeting, held in Dublin from March 4 to 27, 1946, had recommended that a network of ocean weather stations be set up as an aid to safe and economic air operations over the North Atlantic.

This meeting was followed by a conference of delegates from all the North Atlantic States held in London from September 17 to 25, 1946. The conference resulted in the conclusion of an agreement for the establishment of thirteen ocean weather stations at the positions recommended by the Meteorological Committee of the North Atlantic Regional Air Navigation Meeting. According to this agreement, these stations are to be maintained as follows: United States, 7; United Kingdom, 2; United States and Canada, jointly, 1; France, 1; Belgium and the Netherlands, jointly, 1; Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom, jointly, 1.

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The Governments of Ireland and Portugal were to make annual monetary contributions towards the support of the stations. Another major aid to trans-oceanic flying established by the joint effort of member States is a Loran (long range navigation aid) station located at Vik, Iceland. Iceland signed the agreement to operate this station on May 14, 1947, and agreed to cooperate in financing the operations with five other States—Canada, France, Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States — which had previously signed the agreement. The agreement establishing this project, by PICAO technical committees, was concluded after the permanent Organization came into being.

The International Civil Aviation Organization came into being on April 4, 1947, 30 days after the Convention on International Civil Aviation had been ratified by 26 states, as required by the Convention.

The Convention on International Civil Aviation lays down certain principles and sets up machinery "in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically."

B. STRUCTURE

The governing bodies of the Organization are the Assembly and the Council.

The Assembly of ICAO is composed of delegates from member States, each State represented being entitled to one vote. Decisions are made, unless otherwise provided, by a simple majority of the member States present. The Assembly is convened by the Council and meets annually.

The Assembly determines its own rules of procedure and is responsible for the financial arrangements of the Organization, including the approval of an annual budget. It also examines and takes action in matters referred to it by the Council and may, at its discretion, refer to the Council specific matters for the consideration

of the latter body. Finally, the Assembly deals with such matters as come within the sphere of action of the Organization but are not specifically assigned to the Council.

The Council is the executive body of the Organization and derives its powers and authority from the Assembly and from the Convention itself. It is composed of 21 member States, elected by the Assembly for a period of three years. In electing these States, the Assembly must give adequate representation to : (1) those member States of major importance in air transport; (2) those member States not otherwise included which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for international civil air navigation; and (3) those member States not otherwise included whose election will ensure that all major geographical

 

Упражнение 2. Выступите в роли переводчика следующей дискуссии:

Международная организация гражданской авиации является важнейшей структурой ООН. Она отвечает за международное сотрудничество в сфере воздушных перевозок, разработку правил использования глобального воздушного пространства и координацию действий стран в области его мирного использования. ИКАО также проводит расследования катастроф и несчастных случаев с самолетами. Ее мнение пользуется чрезвычайным авторитетом, не так ли?

 

— Yes, you’re right. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a UN specialized agency whichsets international rules on air navigation, the investigation of air accidents, and aerial border-crossing procedures. Its decisions and recommendations are highly authoritative.

 

Все ли страны входят в состав ИКАО?

 

— ICAO works with the Convention’s 191 Member States and global aviation organizations to develop international Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) which States reference when developing their legally-enforceable national civil aviation regulations.

 

Когда была создана ИКАО? На основе каких документов она осуществляет свои функции?

— It was created in 1944 upon the signing of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention).

 

Чикагская Конвенция является своего рода Конституцией ИКАО, не так ли?

 

— Yes. The Convention on International Civil Aviation, drawn up by the conference in Chicago in 1944, is the ICAO’s constitution, and each ICAO Contracting State is a party to it. According to the terms of the Convention, the Organization is made up of an Assembly, a Council of limited membership with various subordinate bodies and a Secretariat. The chief officers are the President of the Council and the Secretary General.

 

Принимались ли какие либо документы, дополняющие Конвенцию, за 70 лет существования организации?

— There are currently over 10,000 SARPs reflected in the 19 Annexes to the Chicago Convention which ICAO oversees, and it is through these provisions – as well as ICAO’s complementary policy, auditing and capacity-building efforts – that today’s global air transport network is able to operate close to 100,000 daily flights, safely, efficiently and securely in every region of the world.

 

С какими международными организациями сотрудничает ИКАО в управлении воздушными перевозками?

— ICAO works in close cooperation with other members of the United Nations family such as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Universal Postal Union (UPU), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

 

— Сотрудничает ли ИКАО с неправительственными организациями?

 

— Yes, non-governmental organizations which also participate in ICAO's work include the Airports Council International (ACI), the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation (CANSO), the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Business Aviation Council (IBAC), International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Associations (ICCAIA), the International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations (IAOPA), the International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations (IFALPA) and the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations (IFATCA).

 

Не могли бы Вы рассказать об истории создания ИКАО?

— It’s a complicated question. I don’t think I can answer it with two-three phrases. The ICAO marked its 70th anniversary in 2014. Its history is full of interesting and important events. I think we should devote a special interview to this problem. I appreciate your interest and attention to this sphere of life.

 

Упражнение 3. Проанализируйте тексты и подготовьтесь к двустороннему переводу:

Speech at military parade on Red Square in Moscow to mark the 70th anniversary of Victory in the 1941–1945 Great Patriotic War. May 9, 2015 Fellow citizens of Russia, Dear veterans, Distinguished guests, Comrade soldiers and seamen, sergeants and sergeant majors, midshipmen and warrant officers, Comrade officers, generals and admirals, I congratulate you all on the 70th Anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War! Today, when we mark this sacred anniversary, we once again appreciate the enormous scale of Victory over Nazism. We are proud that it was our fathers and grandfathers who succeeded in prevailing over, smashing and destroying that dark force. Hitler's reckless adventure became a tough lesson for the entire world community. At that time, in the 1930s, the enlightened Europe failed to see the deadly threat in the Nazi ideology. Today, seventy years later, the history calls again to our wisdom and vigilance. We must not forget that the ideas of racial supremacy and exclusiveness had provoked the bloodiest war ever. The war affected almost 80 percent of the world population. Many European nations were enslaved and occupied. The Soviet Union bore the brunt of the enemy's attacks. The elite Nazi forces were brought to bear on it. All their military power was concentrated against it. And all major decisive battles of World War II, in terms of military power and equipment involved, had been waged there. And it is no surprise that it was the Red Army that, by taking Berlin in a crushing attack, hit the final blow to Hitler's Germany finishing the war. Our entire multi-ethnic nation rose to fight for our Motherland’s freedom. Everyone bore the severe burden of the war. Together, our people made an immortal exploit to save the country. They predetermined the outcome of World War II. They liberated European nations from the Nazis. Veterans of the Great Patriotic War, wherever they live today, should know that here, in Russia, we highly value their fortitude, courage and dedication to frontline brotherhood. Dear friends, The Great Victory will always remain a heroic pinnacle in the history of our country. But we also pay tribute to our allies in the anti-Hitler coalition. We are grateful to the peoples of Great Britain, France and the United States of America for their contribution to the Victory. We are thankful to the anti-fascists of various countries who selflessly fought the enemy as guerrillas and members of the underground resistance, including in Germany itself. We remember the historical meeting on the Elbe, and the trust and unity that became our common legacy and an example of unification of peoples – for the sake of peace and stability. It is precisely these values that became the foundation of the post-war world order. The United Nations came into existence. And the system of the modern international law has emerged. These institutions have proved in practice their effectiveness in resolving disputes and conflicts. However, in the last decades, the basic principles of international cooperation have come to be increasingly ignored. These are the principles that have been hard won by mankind as a result of the ordeal of the war. We saw attempts to establish a unipolar world. We see the strong-arm block thinking gaining momentum. All that undermines sustainable global development. The creation of a system of equal security for all states should become our common task. Such system should be an adequate match to modern threats, and it should rest on a regional and global non-block basis. Only then will we be able to ensure peace and tranquillity on the planet. Dear friends, We welcome today all our foreign guests while expressing a particular gratitude to the representatives of the countries that fought against Nazism and Japanese militarism. Besides the Russian servicemen, parade units of ten other states will march through the Red Square as well. These include soldiers from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Their forefathers fought shoulder to shoulder both at the front and in the rear. These also include servicemen from China, which, just like the Soviet Union, lost many millions of people in this war. China was also the main front in the fight against militarism in Asia.Indian soldiers fought courageously against the Nazis as well. Serbian troops also offered strong and relentless resistance to the fascists. Throughout the war our country received strong support from Mongolia. These parade ranks include grandsons and great-grandsons of the war generation. The Victory Day is our common holiday. The Great Patriotic War was in fact the battle for the future of the entire humanity. Our fathers and grandfathers lived through unbearable sufferings, hardships and losses. They worked till exhaustion, at the limit of human capacity. They fought even unto death. They proved the example of honour and true patriotism. We pay tribute to all those who fought to the bitter for every street, every house and every frontier of our Motherland. We bow to those who perished in severe battles near Moscow and Stalingrad, at the Kursk Bulge and on the Dnieper. We bow to those who died from famine and cold in the unconquered Leningrad, to those who were tortured to death in concentration camps, in captivity and under occupation. We bow in loving memory of sons, daughters, fathers, mothers, grandfathers, husbands, wives, brothers, sisters, comrades-in-arms, relatives and friends – all those who never came back from war, all those who are no longer with us. A minute of silence is announced. Dear veterans, You are the main heroes of the Great Victory Day. Your feat predestined peace and decent life for many generations. It made it possible for them to create and move forward fearlessly. And today your children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren live up to the highest standards that you set. They work for the sake of their country's present and future. They serve their Fatherland with devotion. They respond to complex challenges of the time with honour. They guarantee the successful development, might and prosperity of our Motherland, our Russia! Long live the victorious people! Happy holiday! Congratulations on the Victory Day! Hooray! http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/49438   Выступление Президента России на параде, посвящённом 70-летию Победы в Великой Отечественной войне. 9 мая 2015 года Уважаемые граждане России! Дорогие ветераны! Уважаемые гости! Товарищи солдаты и матросы, сержанты и старшины, мичманы и прапорщики! Товарищи офицеры, генералы и адмиралы! Поздравляю вас с 70-летием Победы в Великой Отечественной войне! Сегодня, отмечая эту священную юбилейную дату, мы вновь осознаём всю грандиозность Победы над нацизмом. Гордимся, что именно наши отцы и деды смогли одолеть, сокрушить и уничтожить эту тёмную силу. Гитлеровская авантюра стала ужасным уроком для всего мирового сообщества. Тогда, в 30-е годы прошлого века, просвещённая Европа не сразу увидела смертоносную угрозу в идеологии нацизма. И сейчас, спустя 70 лет, история вновь взывает к нашему разуму и к нашей бдительности. Мы не должны забывать, что идеи расового превосходства и исключительности привели к самой кровопролитной войне. В неё было вовлечено почти 80 процентов населения Земли. Порабощены, оккупированы многие государства Европы. Советский Союз принял на себя самые жестокие удары врага. Сюда были стянуты отборные группировки нацистов. Сосредоточена вся их военная мощь. Здесь проходили крупнейшие по количеству войск и техники, решающие битвы Второй мировой. И закономерно, что именно Красная Армия в результате сокрушительного штурма Берлина поставила победную точку в войне с гитлеровской Германией. За свободу родной земли боролся весь многонациональный народ. Все несли тяжелейшую ношу войны. И все вместе совершили бессмертный подвиг спасения Отечества. Определили исход Второй мировой войны. Освободили от нацистов народы Европы.   И где бы ни жили сегодня ветераны Великой Отечественной, они должны знать, что здесь, в России, мы высоко чтим их стойкость, мужество и верность фронтовому братству. Дорогие друзья! Великая Победа навсегда останется героической вершиной истории нашей страны. Но мы помним и о наших союзниках по антигитлеровской коалиции. Благодарны народам Великобритании и Франции, Соединённых Штатов Америки за их вклад в Победу. Благодарны антифашистам разных стран, которые самоотверженно боролись в партизанских отрядах и в подполье. В том числе и в самой Германии. Помним историческую встречу союзников на Эльбе. То доверие и единство, которые стали нашим общим наследием, примером объединения народов ради мира и стабильности.   Именно эти ценности легли в основу послевоенного мирового устройства. Была создана Организация Объединённых Наций, сформирована система современного международного права. Эти институты на деле доказали свою эффективность в разрешении споров и конфликтов. Однако в последние десятилетия всё чаще стали игнорироваться базовые принципы международного сотрудничества. Те принципы, которые были выстраданы человечеством после глобальных испытаний войны. Мы видели попытки создания однополярного мира, видим, как набирает обороты силовое блоковое мышление. Всё это подтачивает устойчивость мирового развития. И нашей общей задачей должна стать выработка системы равной безопасности для всех государств. Системы, адекватной современным угрозам, построенной на региональной и глобальной, внеблоковой основе. Только тогда мы обеспечим мир и спокойствие на планете. Дорогие друзья! Мы приветствуем сегодня всех наших зарубежных гостей и выражаем особую признательность представителям стран, которые сражались с нацизмом и японским милитаризмом. Вместе с российскими военными по Красной площади пройдут парадные расчёты ещё десяти государств. Это представители Азербайджана, Армении, Беларуси, Киргизии, Казахстана, Таджикистана. Их деды и прадеды были плечом к плечу – и на фронте, и в тылу.   Это посланцы Китая, который, как и Советский Союз, потерял в этой войне многие и многие миллионы людей. И через который проходил главный фронт борьбы с милитаризмом в Азии. Отважно бились с нацистами и воины Индии.Твёрдое, непримиримое сопротивление фашистам оказали сербы. а протяжении всей войны нашу страну активно поддерживала Монголия. И сейчас в едином парадном строю – уже внуки и правнуки военного поколения. День Победы – наш общий праздник. Ведь Великая Отечественная была битвой за будущее всего человечества. Наши отцы и деды пережили невыносимые страдания, лишения и утраты. Работали на износ, на пределе человеческих сил. Воевали не щадя своей жизни. Показали пример благородства и подлинного патриотизма.   Мы преклоняемся перед всеми, кто насмерть стоял за каждую улицу, каждый дом, каждый рубеж Отчизны. Кто погиб в жестоких боях под Москвой и Сталинградом, на Курской дуге и Днепре. Кто умер от голода и холода в непокорённом Ленинграде. Был замучен в концлагерях, в плену, в оккупации.   Мы склоняем головы перед светлой памятью сыновей, дочерей, отцов, матерей, дедов, мужей, жён, братьев, сестёр, однополчан, родных, друзей. Всех, кто не вернулся с войны. Всех, кого уже нет с нами. Объявляется минута молчания.   Дорогие наши ветераны! Вы главные герои великого дня Победы. Ваш подвиг предопределил мирную, достойную жизнь для многих поколений. Дал им возможность созидать и смело идти вперёд. И сегодня ваши дети, внуки и правнуки уверенно держат эту победную высоту. Трудятся ради настоящего и будущего своей страны. Преданно служат Отечеству. С честью отвечают на сложные современные вызовы. Гарантируют успешное развитие, могущество и процветание нашей Родины, нашей России!   Слава народу-победителю! С праздником! С днём Великой Победы! Ура!    

 

 


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