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Twilight Zone

The twilight zone (6) _____ from the bottom of the sunlight zone down about 3,000 feet. The water (7) _____ darker and colder – about 50°F. The fish that live here can’t see very well, and there isn’t enough light for plant plankton or seaweed to stay (8) _____. Most food comes from dead plankton and animals that drift down from the surface waters.

Midnight Zone

The midnight zone goes from the bottom of the twilight zone to the floor of the ocean. This zone is dark and (9) _____. The temperature is really cold – about 43°F. The weight of the water from above presses very hard on the small, (10) _____ blind animals that live here. Many deep-ocean fish have parts that glow from chemicals in (11) _____ bodies. Their lights confuse enemies, lure prey, and (12) _____ mates. At some places on the ocean floor, water (13) _____ hot as 750°F shoots out of openings, or vents. Minerals collect around the vents to form underwater chimneys. The hot water rising from the chimneys looks like black smoke.


A alive B attract C as D extends E gets
F just G nearly H percent I still J swim
K their L though M to N top O where
P which        



Your pen friend has decided to visit you in Ukraine. Write him / her an email (60–80 words). Include this information:

• what to prepare for this trip to Ukraine;

• what traditional Ukrainian dishes you will recommend him / her to try ;

• what places of interest you are going to show him / her in your town.



Read the text and match the headings (A-G) to the paragraphs (1-6). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.

AHackers' Criminal Activities

ВHacking in the Future

CHackers' Social Activities

DSpecialists' Programmes

EThe Role of Computers in Everyday Life

FAvoiding Computer Viruses

GPlaces where Hackers Meet


1 __________ __________

With the development of technology in the twenty-first century, it would be really difficult to imagine life without computers. They are a source of information, education and entertainment. But today's world of computers can also be quite frightening and dangerous. This is because of people who use computers for illegal purposes. They are called hackers.

2__________ __________

Hackers spend their time playing with computer data in all parts of cyberspace. Much of what they do is not dangerous, but sometimes their activities break the law, for example, when they break into websites, take control of computers or create viruses. They are especially interested in breaking through the security of military websites.

3__________ __________

Hackers know how to trick people just using their programmes. They use a 'Trojan Horse', a programme that looks perfectly safe, but actually contains something destructive. The only way of not getting into trouble is not to open it.

4__________ __________

Although they can be seriously punished if they are caught, most hackers still think that what they do is a game. They often meet at festivals to take part in discussions, share their experiences, meet other hackers and generally to have a good time.

5__________ __________

These meetings are organised in well-known places like Las Vegas or Berlin. However, what the hackers do at such festivals is a secret and often many of their activities take place at night.

6 __________ __________

Recently, hacking has started to increase. Hackers are getting into computer systems and stealing or destroying information. It is certain that there will be a lot more of this high-tech crime in the twenty-first century.

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