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Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения.

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  1. I. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на пе­ревод неличных форм глагола и их функцию.
  2. I. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на пе­ревод неличных форм глагола и их функцию.
  3. II. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на пере­вод страдательного залога и сослагательного наклонения.
  4. III. Переведите следующие предложения, постарайтесь точно передать значение модальных глаголов.
  5. IV. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на пе­ревод многозначных слов.
  6. V. Переведите следующие предложения.
  7. Болевой синдром при стабильной стенокардии напряжения характеризуется рядом признаков. К имеющим наибольшее клиническое значение относят следующие.
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1. The Saudis are well aware that their oil revenues would increase if
they boosted production, because any fall in price would be more than
offset by an increase in volume.

2. It would be dangerous folly to write off as insignificant the revival
of nazi-type extremism in Europe.

3. In preparation for their meeting tomorrow it would be a very good
idea if Trades Union Congress leaders would make a point of meeting the
rank-and-file workers who are lobbying Parliament today.

4. If the Saudi royal family, in particular, were overthrown, it would
oil markets into turmoil.

5. This veto provision reflects the conviction of those who drafted the
Charter that the United Nations would be unable to take an important ini­
tiative for the maintenance of peace and security unless there was una­
nimity among the big powers, and that to attempt so would be a futile
gesture endangering the organization.

6. The blacks believe that if white children had been involved in the
tragedy it would have received huge public and press attention.

7. Iraq wants a date for sanctions to end. They could have ended long
since if Iraq had not been trying to rearm and Unscom (UNSCOM —
United Nations Security Council observers mission) had therefore been
ready to declare the country free of forbidden weapons.

8. Had there been no international safety net supplied by an act of the
U.S. Congress, the Brazilian President might have seen fit to work harder.

9. The former Yugoslavia's people have lived together for centuries
with greater and lesser degrees of conflict but not constant «cleansing»
of peoples from their land. Had they experienced nothing but that, their
nations would be homogeneous today, not endlessly diverse.


10. David Hare's play «Plenty» opened to poor notices and would
have lasted a fortnight had he not been in a position
to «nurse» it.
Eventually it reached Broadway and became a film.

11. Turkey's prime minister, who has been a hawk on foreign policy
issues, argued that were it not for external inteference, Turkey's so-called
Kurdish problem could «easily» be solved by planned economic and
educational improvements.

12. After tending to flower arrangements and throwing lavish parties,
she takes up the task of hard-bitten negotiator — one who barks at top
executives as if they were naughty children.

13. Accounting for about 40 per cent of OPEC production, Saudi
Arabia currently enjoys enormous leverage over the market and its oil-
producing colleagues. If it were to cut back sharply, however, sagging oil
prices would almost certainly jump up once again.

14. The major U.S. auto companies lost an astonishing $4.2 billion
last year. Of the three, only General Motors is likely to show a profit this
year. If the two weaker companies were to collapse, hundreds of thou­
sands of jobs would be lost in the auto industry alone, and perhaps a mil­
lion jobs, taking into account the industries that produce materials for cars
such as steel and glass.

15. One of their fears is that the auto industry, if given relief, would

increase prices rather than production. Another argument that they have used is that even if production were to increase, General Motors would pick up roughly 60 per cent of the lost Japanese sales and that would not provide enough help for Chrysler and Ford.

16. Such extraordinary growth of the political correctness industry
would quickly slacken //the driving force behind it — the language of
political correctness — were to go out of fashion.

17. Any proposal to go ahead with this disgusting weapon should be
vigorously combatted. It may be immensely profitable to the chemical in­
dustry, but if ever it were used, it would bring an agonising death to thou­

18. How would the West respond if one day China, say, were to carry
out air strikes against an Indian government fighting to prevent its Mus­
lim-majority province of Jammu & Kashmir from seceding?

19. The Iraqis see themselves trapped. But the Security Council is no
less trapped: were it to bend in the face of Iraqi belligerence, it would de­
its remaining credibility.

20. To permit the programs of the new administration to be imposed
upon the people is to embolden the ultra-right. Should this program be
carried out,
we shall then face a serious change in the situation that could
open the road to a fascist America.

21. If Bonn should decide to buy less gas, it would certainly soften
U.S. opposition. But if the Germans conclude they need all the gas they
are slated to get, there could be trouble.

22. Should the Tories succeed in finding another candidate, we may
yet see the spectacle of the three brands of Tories fighting each other for
the votes.

23. Today's talks will certainly lay down guide-lines for a Tory Mani­
festo should an early election materialize

24. Should any appeal be needed, the Prime Minister will have op­
portunities for personal chats with backsliders at a party for MPs of pre­
vious Parliaments which he will give at 10 Downing Street tonight.

25. Economies depend less on oil than they did. The development of
markets to trade oil and oil futures means that price signals are relayed
faster and more efficiently. Oil-producing capacity outside OPEC could
be brought back on stream should oil prices ever flip up again.

26. They had a special reason for preferring short-time — the low
normal wastage at its works — but, again, fear of a strike if redundancies
were declared
also influenced the company.

27. Euro-MPs have been emboldened to go after the Commission

members as they would never have dared to do in the days of Jacques Delors.

28. If theagreement in Berlin last week was a «success», then the
world could be forgiven for wondering quite what a failure would have
looked like

29. U.S. Embassy sources stressed that the visas would never have
been issued
to the five officers, who were presented as diplomats going
for routine consultations with their own embassy, if their military function
had been known

30. There would not have been a review if the estimate's conclusions
totally supported the administration's charges.

31. Had the election campaign been still in progress, the wage
squeeze might have become an issue.

32. But for import restrictions, quotas and American-imposed embar­
goes, Anglo-Russian trade would be larger than it is today.

33. But Solana's charm — the perpetual smile on his bearded, be­
spectacled face, and his tactile Mediterranean manners — wouldn 't work
if it was
entirely insincere.

34. If the IMFwere not refinanced, it could not bail out Brazil and
Brazil would go the way of the Asian tigers, with serious repercussions
for the US and world economy.

35. It is not possible to devise experiments to test whether, say, US
government would be less susceptible to institutional government
gridlock if it abandoned the separation of powers, or whether communism
could have survived in the USSR had reforms been instigated a
generation earlier.

36. Were it not for circular highway that defines the limits of the
capital, it would be impossible to know where Paris ends and Boulogne-
Billancourt begins.


I. Should

При переводе предложений с глаголом shouldтрудность возни­кает из-за многообразия его значений в различных функциях.

1. В функции вспомогательного глагола shouldупотребляется для образования будущего времени в прошедшем (обычно в при­даточных предложениях с 1-м лицом) и для образования форм

3 — 553 65

сослагательного наклонения (shouldв сослагательном наклоне­нии (см. §5)).

2. В функции модального глагола shouldвыражает долженство­
вание в плане совета или пожелания и обычно переводится: следу­
ет, следовало бы, нужно, не мешало бы , должен (бы) и т п

For the time being, until a greater European consciousness takes root, the preponderance of power in the EU should remain with the Council of Ministers. В течение какого-то времени, пока не укрепится общеевропейское самосознание, основные властные полномочия в ЕС должны оставаться у Совета министров.

3. В функции конъюнктива should+ инфинитив употребляется:

1) для выражения оценки или эмоций (удивление, сожаление, по­дозрение, неодобрение). Употребляется в придаточных предложени­ях в функции подлежащего после сочетаний типа: It is strange that...; it is natural that...; it is vital that...; it is essential that...; it is impor­tant that...; it is surprising that...; it is advisable that..., it is high time that... и др.

Употребляется также в вопросительных предложениях с why, how и др

В этом случае на русский язык сочетание shouldс последующим инфинитивом переводится личной формой глагола в изъявительном наклонении настоящего или прошедшего времени (прошедшего в том случае, если за shouldследует перфектная форма инфинитива).

Так как в русском языке нет соответствующих грамматических форм, эта функция передается, где это вообще возможно, лексиче­ски.

It is a bit odd that the holder of NATO's top civilian post should have spent much of his early life as a semiclandestine socialist, cam­paigning to shut American military bases in his homeland and stop it joining NATO. Несколько странно, что высший гражданский ру­ководитель НАТО большую часть своей молодости был социали­стом, находившимся на полулегальном положении, и участвовал в кампаниях за закрытие американских военных баз в своей стране и против ее вступления в НАТО.

Примечание Shouldможет также выражать предположение В этом случае переводится на русский язык словами должно быть, вероятно В газетном тексте в этом значении встречается довольно редко

There should have been plenty of evidence around that a monetary policy alone cannot compensate for government indiscipline Должно быть (вероятно), есть масса свидетельств тому, что монетарная политика сама по себе не может компенсировать отсутствие дисциплины в системе управления

2) в придаточном подлежащем с глаголом-сказуемым типа: (it) is
recommended (suggested, proposed, demanded, requested, determined,
arranged, advised, etc) that

3) в придаточном дополнительном после глаголов recommend,
suggest, demand
и т.п.

4) в придаточном предикативном, если подлежащим главного
предложения является существительное того же корня (т.е. recom­
mendation, suggestion, demand
и т.п.)

В случаях 2, 3, 4, предложения с shouldпереводятся на русский язык сослагательным наклонением (частица бы + глагол в прошед­шем времени).

The report also suggests that Brussels should adopt more general European standards of practice in housing architecture rather than im­pose strict directives. В докладе также содержится предложение, чтобы Брюссель не навязывал строгие директивы, а принял бы более общие европейские стандарты в практике жилищного строительства.

Примечание. Как стилистический или американский вариант формы should+ инфинитив употребляется форма, омонимичная инфинитиву без частицы to.

The UN Secretary General recommended that UN military observers leave Angola, saying the resumption of civil war made their presence useless Генеральный секретарь ООН рекомендовал, чтобы военные наблюдате­ли ООН покинули Анголу, отметив, что возобновление гражданской войны делает их присутствие бессмысленным

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Читайте в этой же книге: Часть I | Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения. | Субъектно-предикативный инфинитивный оборот (кон­струкция «именительный с инфинитивом»). | Объектно-предикативный инфинитивный оборот (кон­струкция «винительный с инфинитивом»). | Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения. | Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения. | Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения. | Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения. | Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения. | Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения. |
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