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Say whether these statements are TRUE or FALSE. 1. Lead exposure ends when lead-based paint and leaded gasoline are phased out

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  1. A Discuss these questions as a class.
  2. A few common expressions are enough for most telephone conversations. Practice these telephone expressions by completing the following dialogues using the words listed below.
  3. A Read the text. Discuss these questions with a partner.
  4. A Work with a partner and discuss these questions.
  5. A. Prepare a talk, giving your own views on any one of these topics which you feel strongly about. Find some facts to support your idea.
  6. A. The article below describes the lives of two Russian teachers of English, Anya and Olga. Read the article and find out whether they are satisfied with their jobs.
  7. A. Whether total revenue (expenditure) increases or decreases as price changes

1. Lead exposure ends when lead-based paint and leaded gasoline are phased out. 2. Lead is toxic mainly because it preferentially replaces other metals (e.g., zinc, calcium and iron) in biochemical reactions. 3. Paracelsus’ idea that the dose makes the poison fits lead very well. 4. Lead is not dangerous for small children, because it cannot cause developmental problems. 5. It is true that any lead is too much lead.

2. Match the words to their opposites:

1) useful a) rise
2) to turn on b) non-toxic
3) fall c) to forget
4) high d) to turn off
5) to diminish e) useless
6) minimum f) to spend
7) too much g) low
8) toxic h) maximum
9) to recall i) to increase
10) to accumulate j) too little

 

 

15. How Do Chemical Weapons Smell?

pungent пекучий suffocating задушливий
blister пухир to rot гнити
weapon зброя bleach хлорне вапно
mustard гірчиця toilet bowl унітаз
in warfare під час бойових дій splash hazard ризик розбризкування
to encounter зустрічатись caustic їдкий
scouring powder порошок для чищеня mildew remover знищувач плісняви

 

You may have a mental image of a chemical agent as some greenish vapor with a pungent, unpleasant smell. Are you surprised to learn most chemical agents are colorless and odorless? Many have characteristic odors, but some actually smell nice.

Many blister agents smell a bit like plants. Other agents may have pungent odors, yet most chemical weapons have no scent at all. Here’s a list of some chemical agents and their... bouquets.

Sulfur Mustard – includes mustard gas, usually odorless and colorless in pure form but yellowish-brown with an odor reminiscent of the mustard plant, garlic, or horseradish when used in warfare.

Chlorine Gas – pale greenish gas with a suffocating, unpleasant odor, similar to chlorine bleach.

Lewisite – WWI blister agent that smells strongly of geraniums.

Phosgene Oxime – blister agent with an irritating smell, though somewhat of mown hay or cut green corn.

Sarin – extremely toxic odorless nerve agent.

VX – probably the most toxic nerve agent, odorless.

Soman – nerve gas that smells like Vicks VapoRub or rotting fruit, depending on who you ask.

CS Gas – tear gas, odorless.

Some of the common chemicals found in your home shouldn’t be mixed together. It’s one thing to say “don’t mix bleach with ammonia”, but it’s not always easy to know what products contain these two chemicals. Here are some products you may have around the home that shouldn’t be combined and a list of dangerous household chemicals that may be helpful.

Bleach with Acid Toilet Bowl Cleaners – can result in toxic, potentially deadly fumes.

Bleach with Vinegar – as vinegar is a type of acid so toxic chlorine vapor is produced. Don’t mix chlorine bleach with any acid.

Bleach with Ammonia – toxic, potentially lethal vapors are produced. The main danger comes from chloramine vapors.

Different Brands of One Type of Product – don’t mix different cleaners together. They may react violently, produce toxins, or become ineffective.

Highly Alkaline Products with Highly Acidic Products – acids and bases (alkalis) can react violently, presenting a splash hazard. Acids and bases are caustic and may cause chemical burns.

Certain Disinfectants with Detergents – don’t mix disinfectants with ‘quaternary ammonia’ listed as an ingredient with a detergent. The effectiveness of the disinfectant may be neutralized.

Chlorine bleach is sometimes called “sodium hypochlorite” or “hypochlorite”. You will encounter it in chlorine bleach, automatic dishwashing detergents, chlorinated disinfectants and cleaners, chlorinated scouring powder, mildew removers, and toilet bowl cleaners. Do not mix products together or with ammonia or vinegar.


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