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Say whether the statements are TRUE or FALSE. 1. In the presence of water iron shines

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  1. A. The article below describes the lives of two Russian teachers of English, Anya and Olga. Read the article and find out whether they are satisfied with their jobs.
  2. A. Whether total revenue (expenditure) increases or decreases as price changes
  3. Agree or disagree with the statements using the following
  4. Assess your progress in this unit. Say which statements are true.
  5. B. Read the text and see whether you were right. Get prepared to discuss the text in detail.
  6. C Why, what, whose, whichand whether
  7. Codes of ethics and mission statements

1. In the presence of water iron shines. 2. Iron can be found in its pure form everywhere on the Earth. 3. Iron constitutes 5% of the Earth’s crust. 4. Saturn is also rich in iron. 5. Steel is made of iron and big amount of manganese. 6. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, France, is made of cast iron. 7. Meteors brought wrought iron to the Earth. 8. Tools and weapons were made of iron as long ago as 12th century BC. 9. Iron is very expensive in production. 10. Galvanization is a process of coating a material with plastic.


2. Give synonyms to the following words from the text:

to form, disintegration, important, common, a core, giant, small, huge, to produce, due to, actually, to contain, to occur.


12. Biochemistry

to conglomerate об’єднувати, групувати whereas в той час як
to acquire набувати, отримувати a duct трубочка, канал
tissue тканина a target ціль
blood stream тік крові to retard затримувати
via за допомогою major основний


Biochemistry deals with the study of the complex and simple chemical processes that occur inside a human body and various biochemical elements involved in these processes. Biochemistry refers to the vital chemical processes that are underlying the routine physiological activities in our day-to-day life. Biochemistry is used to study the biochemical processes in plants, animals, microorganisms as well as human beings. Here are the basic concepts in the field of biochemistry.

Earliest references to the field of biochemistry have been spotted approximately 400 years ago. Although the use of the term “biochemistry” was seen in 1882, Carl Neuberg first proposed the term “biochemistry” in 1903.

Biochemistry involves the study of some basic bio-compounds. Some of the basic bio-molecules studied in the field of biochemistry are broadly categorized as small molecules, monomers and polymers. Basically the smaller molecules can be conglomerated into monomers, which in turn if combined with other monomers can form polymers.

Some of the basic bio-molecules include lipids, phospholipids, glycolipids, sterols, vitamins, hormones and carbohydrates. Lipids are fat-soluble that are important for energy storage and are also essential as structural components of cell membranes. Lipids are divided into eight categories, which are fatty acyls, glycerolipids, sphingolipids, glycero-phospholipids, saccharolipids, polyketides, sterol lipids and prenol lipids. Vitamins are organic compounds that cannot be synthesized in adequate quantities but our organism has to acquire them from the diet. Vitamins have various biochemical functions that are of prime importance for the living organisms. Vitamins act as hormones, anti-oxidants, cell-signaling mediators as well as regulate the cell and tissue growth and differentiation.

Hormones are chemicals that are signal carriers, carrying signals from one cell to the other via the blood stream. Hormones are classified as endocrine and exocrine hormones depending on the site of their secretion. Endocrine hormones are those that are secreted directly into the bloodstream whereas the exocrine hormones are secreted into a duct, from where they are transported to the target organ. Carbohydrates are nothing but the basic sugars or the simple organic compounds, which are responsible for the storage and transport of energy and also act as structural components.

Enzymes are other vital bio-molecules that are nothing but proteins which act as catalysts in the various chemical reactions. Enzyme activity can be controlled by certain specific chemicals, which are categorized as enzyme activators that initiate and accelerate the enzyme activity and the enzyme inhibitors that retard the enzyme activity.

Monomers include various bio-molecules like amino acids, nucleotides, and phosphates and monosaccharides. Amino acids are nothing but the building blocks of proteins. Besides, twenty standard amino acids are used by cells in protein biosynthesis. The amino acids are joined by a peptide bond in formation of proteins. Nucleotides are the structural units of RNA and DNA. A nitrogenous base, a sugar and the presence of one or more phosphate groups are the basic characteristics of nucleotides. The two major groups of nitrogenous bases include purines and pyrimidines. The phosphates are nothing but phosphoric acid salts, which are important bio-molecules. The group of monomers also includes single sugars called monosaccharides, which cannot be broken down into simple sugars and are generally colorless, crystalline and water-soluble.

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