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Exercise 1. Say whether the statements are TRUE or FALSE. 1. The induction heater made by Zenergy Power plc is used for plastics processing

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1. The induction heater made by Zenergy Power plc is used for plastics processing. 2. Conventional induction heaters are less efficient than the new superconductor-based induction heater. 3. Induction heaters are used for shaping computer components and window frames. 4. The induction heaters contain electromagnets driven by direct current. 5. Induction heaters consume much energy. 6. The main reason for low efficiency of induction heaters is eddy current. 7. There is no hysteresis when superconductors are used. 8. Superconductor induction heaters can cause local overheating of workpieces.

Exercise 2. Give synonyms to the following words from the text:

to induce, resistance, typically, astonishing, total, tendency, to provide, a problem, a downside, expense, a trial, to expect, a billet.


12. Hot Bolt Powers Sensors

to harvest збирати, отримувати an issue проблема
dc (direct current) постійний струм self-sustaining самозабезпечуваний
a trickle струмочок intermittent переривчастий
a node вузол conditioning регулювання
to track відстежувати a heat sink тепловідвід
a survey огляд ambient навколишній
deployment введення в дію to evaluate оцінювати


A German company, Micropelt GmbH, has developed a prototype bolt that screws into a hot machine and harvests the waste heat as electricity. Based on thermoelectric thin films, the TE-Power-Bolt generates 0.2 to 15 milliwatts of power and uses an integrated dc-dc converter to set voltage between 1.2 and 5 volts.

So what can you do with such a small trickle of power? Micropelt’s vice president, Burkhard Habbe, points to wireless sensor nodes. By connecting tiny autonomous sensors wirelessly, manufacturers create distributed networks to track material flow and monitor machinery. The network gives managers a precise picture of production status. A single plant could use dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of sensor nodes.

Today, batteries power those devices. Habbe points to a survey by San Diego-based market research firm ON World Inc. that sees global deployment of 128 million wireless sensor nodes within two years. The same survey found that 75 percent of industry experts named batteries as a critical issue because they require constant monitoring and replacement.

Micropelt’s solution is to replace batteries with TE-Power-Bolts. The bolts are self-sustaining power supplies that never need replacement. Their low power output is ideal for sensors that take and report intermittent measurements (as opposed to critical sensors that must operate all the time).

The sensors themselves consist of two different types of semiconductors that produce a current when there is a temperature gradient between them. The semiconductors and power conditioning devices sit on the head of an M24 steel screw.

The screw transmits heat from a hot machine or a pipe carrying fluids to the semiconductors. One of the semiconductors is connected to a 1.5-inch-diameter aluminum heat sink above the bolt head that draws away heat. As long as the hot surface is 10 to 20°C warmer than ambient temperature, the TE-Power-Bolt will generate power.

“We are supporting two basic scenarios,” Habbe said. “One is an external energy supply, as represented by TE-Power-Bolt, where a short wire connects to the sensor node, which may not sit on a warm surface but has one nearby. The second is an integrated thermal energy source, functioning like a built-in battery, which would never run out. It is good for sensors sitting on warm or hot surfaces of any type.”

The TE-Power-Bolt was designed to show how an energy harvester based on the company’s thin film thermoelectric technology might look. Micropelt would like to license the technology, and Habbe says some companies are already evaluating the prototype.


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