1. A dishwasher, refrigerator compressor and other appliances use an internal combustion engine. 2. The company Mitsubishi Electric Europe B.V. has suggested a new processor. 3. The new device is placed on a single chip. 4. It contains five passive components. 5. The size of the entire printed circuit is a square inch. 6. The inverter protects the appliances against short circuit. 7. It takes only 1 second to turn off the device in case of short circuit. 8. The inverter increases the noise of the appliances.
Exercise 2. Give synonyms to the following words from the text:
an appliance, goods, household, intelligent, entire, to bond, to protect, to provide, opportunity, to familiarize.
9. Foiled Again
|yield strength||міцність||to toss||кидати|
|a shaft||вал||to match||вирівнювати|
|spring-loaded||пружинний||airborne||що перебуває у повітрі|
|journal lining||опорна підкладка||to prevent||запобігати|
|to clock in||обертатись||to cut back on||скорочувати|
Foil bearings are making explosive progress, according to Hooshang Heshmat, an ASME Fellow and founder of Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc. in Albany, N.Y.
Foil bearings run on a thin film of air that enables them to achieve very high rotational speeds. How high? According to Heshmat, he once ran a 50-pound-thrust turbine engine so fast that it exceeded the ultimate yield strength of the shaft, which cracked and exploded into thousands of pieces. Nor was it any ordinary shaft: It was made of 440C, a high-carbon chromium bearing steel used in the Space Shuttle’s main engine.
The key to foil bearing performance lies in its foil. The shaft rests on a spring-loaded foil journal lining coated with solid lubricant. Once it starts moving, it rides on the foil until it moves fast enough to generate the air pressure needed to push the foil away. At this point, the shaft is riding on a film of air. Foil bearings use no liquid lubricants.
The technology was invented 50 years ago. In the early days, foil bearings could support maximum loads of only about 10 pounds per square inch at room temperature. Today, Mohawk has bearings that carry loads up to 100 pounds per square inch and operate at temperatures as high as 1,700°F. The smallest foil bearings are 4 mm in diameter and achieve 1 million revolutions per minute. The largest bearings are 235 mm diameter and clock in at hypersonic speeds of more than 600 meters per second.
Mohawk’s latest bearings take advantage of two key innovations. The first has to do with the bearing’s ability to absorb shocks without failing. This involves a delicate balance of stiffness and damping. Heshmat likens it to tossing a child into the air. “As the baby starts coming down, you match his speed with your hands to slow him down gradually before catching him,” he explained. “We’ve designed the foil and springs around the shaft to achieve multilevel stiffness and damping to do just that.”
Heshmat’s team has also developed an innovative foil coating. It fulfills two important functions. First, it acts as a solid lubricant to smooth the startup of the bearing before it goes airborne. This prevents wear. The same coating also acts as a thermal barrier, enabling the foils to survive for tens of thousands of hours at temperatures up to 1,700°F.
The military funded much of Mohawk’s research for use in missiles, rockets, and jet engines.
Lubrication-free bearings could make possible turbochargers for diesel engines. As today’s diesel turbochargers age, oil leaks into the engine and comes out as particulates. Environmental regulations limit particulate emissions, such as the black soot that diesels emit as they warm up to operating temperatures. While foil bearings could double the cost of turbochargers, they would allow diesel manufacturers to cut back on the equipment now needed to capture particulate emissions.
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