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Say whether the statements are TRUE or FALSE.

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  1. A. The article below describes the lives of two Russian teachers of English, Anya and Olga. Read the article and find out whether they are satisfied with their jobs.
  2. A. Whether total revenue (expenditure) increases or decreases as price changes
  3. Agree or disagree with the statements using the following
  4. Assess your progress in this unit. Say which statements are true.
  5. B. Read the text and see whether you were right. Get prepared to discuss the text in detail.
  6. C Why, what, whose, whichand whether
  7. Codes of ethics and mission statements

1. The chemical symbol of gold is Gd. 2. Gold can perfectly conduct heat. 3. A metal is malleable when we can easily hammer it in thin sheets. 4. You can never see through any piece of gold. 5. “Fool’s gold” is a nickname for silver. 6. People have mined about 1,000,000 tonnes of gold. 7. Today China is the leader in production of gold. 8. Some parts in electronic devices are made of gold.


2. Give synonyms to the following words from the text:

to appear, due to, to estimate, a reserve, continually, to link, to create, to reduce, to receive.


11. Iron

moisture волога availability наявність
disintegration руйнування cast iron чавун
to remove видаляти manganese марганець
a core ядро a vehicle транспортний засіб
huge величезний to prevent (from) запобігати (чогось)
strength міцність; опір to coat покривати
puddle iron пудлінговане залізо chickpea нут, турецький горох
wrought iron коване залізо iron rich food їжа, багата залізом


Iron is a chemical element and metal. Its chemical symbol is Fe and its atomic number is 26. When iron and oxygen react in the presence of water or moisture, rust (iron oxide) is formed. You might have noticed your bike chain (or other parts) rusting from time to time (especially if you haven’t been taking care of it). Another word for rusting is corrosion, which describes the disintegration of materials such as iron and steel. Because iron oxidizes so easily, it is rarely found in a pure metal form on the Earth’s surface. It is instead removed from ores (rocks containing important minerals and elements).

Iron is the 4th most common element in the Earth’s crust, making up around 5% of the total (usually found as iron oxide in minerals like hematite). The Earth’s core is thought to be made up of an iron and nickel alloy. Gas giant planets such as Saturn and Jupiter have cores that are rich in iron, too. Iron is the 6th most common element found in the Universe.

Steel is a well known and commonly used alloy made from iron and a small amount of carbon (or sometimes other elements). The amount of carbon is small (usually between 0.2% and 2.0%) but it makes a huge difference to the strength. Steel can be around 1000 times stronger than iron in its pure form. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, France, is made of puddle iron. Puddle iron is a form of wrought iron, an iron alloy with a very low level of carbon content. Wrought iron was used commonly throughout western history but is no longer produced in large amounts due to the availability of steel. The early wrought iron used in human history actually came from meteors!

Cast iron is a type of iron that contains carbon, silicon and small amount of manganese. It was used in earlier times to build structures like cast iron bridges. Like wrought iron, however, most of its uses have been replaced by steel.

The Iron Age was a prehistoric time when useful tools and weapons were first made from iron and steel. The dates this occurred in various parts of the world vary, with historians suggesting around 12th century BC in ancient Greece and 6th century BC in Northern Europe.

In 2006, China was the world’s largest producer of iron, making up around 33% of the world’s total production.

Iron is relatively cheap to produce and has a large number of different uses. Machines, vehicles and building structures are commonly built from iron (usually in the form of steel). To prevent iron and steel from rust damage, they can be painted, coated with plastic, galvanized (coated with zinc) or by other methods that keep out water and oxygen.

Iron in the human body has a number of important functions including carrying oxygen to the body in the form of hemoglobin. Iron deficiency can be quite common (especially among women), with a number of possible symptoms including fatigue and weakness. Iron rich foods include red meat, fish, tofu, beans and chickpeas.

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