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Complex and Compound Sentences

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  1. A Read the text again quickly and complete sentences 1-6.
  2. A) Order the words to make sentences.
  3. A). Look at the calendar which shows his arrangements for the next few months and then make up sentences, as in the example.
  4. A. Match the questions and answers. Complete the sentences.
  5. A. Rewrite the sentences without using the underlined words. Keep the meaning the same.
  6. Analyse and translate the following sentences
  7. And sealing compounds


They make up two syntagms.

If you are ,lateÅ"ask per"mission to "come °in.||

Note. Two-member principle clause and an object clause as a subordinate one are joined into one syntagm.


He "says

I "think he was °late.||

I "know

I "suppose

Direct Address

The intonation of direct address depends on its position in the sentence.

1.Direct address in sentence-initial position is always stressed, it makes up a separate sense-group. In formal speech it takes the LOW FALL, e.g. °Gentlemen,| "take your °seats.||

In a friendly conversation the FALL-RISE is preferable, e. g. °Ma™ry,| "won’t you "sit ™down?||

2. Direct address in sentence-mid or sentence-final position does not make up a separate syntagm. It is pronounced as an unstressed or partially stressed tail of the preceding syntagm, e. g. Good ™night, Mary!||

Note. Direct address after the low falling nucleus can make the LOW RISE without forming a separate syntagm. In this case it sounds informal, friendly, e. g. Good "after°noon, ™Mary!||


The intonation of parenthesis depends on its position in the sentence.

1. Parentheses in sentence-initial position are usually stressed. They can form separate syntagms which mostly take the Low Fall or Low Rise, though the Fall-Rise is also possible.

Note.Parenthetical phrases that introduce object clauses such as, “I think”, “I suppose”, “I believe” do not form separate sense-groups.

2. Parentheses in sentence-mid or sentence-final position do not form separate syntagms. They are pronounced as an unstressed tail of the preceding stressed word, e. g. He is °out, I’m a%fraid.||

Author’s Words

The group of author’s words may stand at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the sentence.

I. Author’s words in sentence-initial position form a separate intonation-group.

1. Short phrases generally take the Low Level Tone, Low Rise or Low Fall.

She %said, Ê

She ™said, > “"Sorry to have "kept you °waiting.”||

She °said ,Ë

2. An extended group of author’s words usually takes the Low Level pre-terminal tones (the Low Level scale or head) followed by the Low Fall or Low Rise, e. g.

She %said ex°citedly, Ê

“"Sorry to have "kept you °waiting.”||

She %said ex™citedly, Ë

II. Mid-sentence author’s words are usually pronounced as an unstressed tail of the preceding sense-group, thus breaking the sense-group into two syntagms.

“°Sorry, - she %said |– to have "kept you °waiting.”||

III. Author’s words in the sentence-final position are also pronounced as an unstressed tail of the preceding sense-group, if they are unextended.

Extended group of sentence-final author’s words forms two or more syntagms. Some initial words of the group are said as an unstressed tail of the preceding syntagm, it repeats the intonation pattern of the first syntagm but on a narrowed range.

“"Will you "do me a ™favour”, she asked| "looking me "straight in the °eye.||

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