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Some of these verbs are used in continuous tenses when they describe actions rather than states.

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  1. A Discuss these questions as a class.
  2. A few common expressions are enough for most telephone conversations. Practice these telephone expressions by completing the following dialogues using the words listed below.
  3. A Present continuous
  4. A Read the text. Discuss these questions with a partner.
  5. A Where do adverbs go?
  6. A Work with a partner and discuss these questions.
  7. A. Prepare a talk, giving your own views on any one of these topics which you feel strongly about. Find some facts to support your idea.
Present Simple Present Continuous
She isvery patient (- character.) I think it’s a wonderful film (- I believe). They have (got) a swimming pool (- they possess). Your mother looks very tired (- she appears to be). I can see your house from here (- I use my eyes). 1 see what you mean. (understand). He is being very good. (-behaviour.) I'm thinking of buying a new house (- I'm considering.) They’re having a wonderful holiday. (- they are enjoying themselves.) The architect is looking at the plans. (- he is checking/ examining.) Are youseeing the dentist tomorrow? (- are you meeting?) You’re seeing things. There is no one there (- you are imagining)
This blouse feels like silk (- it has the texture of). This chicken tastes delicious (- it has a delicious flavour). These flowers smell nice (- have a nice smell). She appears to be very angry. (- she seems to be). These shoes fit me perfectly (- they are the right size). Mum is feeling Tim’s forehead (- she is touching). The chef is tasting the soup to see if it is alright (- he is testing the flavour). She’s smelling the roses (- she is sniffing). We are appearing at Central Park next weekend (- we are performing). Peter is fitting new locks on all the doors (- he is attaching).    


1. The verb enjoy can be used in continuous tenses to express a specific preference. I'm enjoying this film a lot (specific preference).

BUT: I enjoy going sailing, (general preference)

  1. The verbs look (when we refer to smb’s appearance), feel (experience a particular emotion), hurt and ache can be used in the continuous or the simple tenses with no difference in meaning. You look wonderful today, or You are looking wonderful today. She feels sick, or She is feeling sick.


· With time clauses we use the present simple or present perfect, but NOT future forms. We use words and expressions such as while, before, after, until / till, as, when, whenever, once, as soon as, as long as, by the time,etc to introduce time clauses.

- By the time he arrives, it will be dark. (NOT; By tho time he will arrive...)

· We also use the present simple and present perfect but NOT future forms after words and expressions such as unless, if, suppose/supposing, in case, etc.

- If she wants more information, tell her to call me. (NOT-lf she will want..,)

· We use future forms with: when - when it is used as a question word.

- When will you be seeing Mike next ?

· if/whether - after expressions which show uncertainty, ignorance, etc, such as I don't know, I doubt, I wonder, I'm not sure, etc.

- Idoubt whether she will come tonight.



Past Simple Tense

We use the past simple:

· For an action that happened at a definite time (stated or implied) in the past. Tina arrivedin Vienna last week.

· For actions that happened immediately after one another in the past. He left the house, walked to the station and caught the 5:05 train to New York.

· For past habits or states which are now finished, usually it is used with used to:I workedfor Morton’s when I was younger. Now I don’t. I used to work for the company when I was younger.

Used to

We use used to + infinitiveto refer to past habits or states.

· In such cases used to can be replaced by verb in the past simple with no change in meaning.

- When I was younger, I used to go to Wales on holiday every year. When I was younger, I wentto Wales on holiday every year.

The time expressions used with the past simple: yesterday, then, when?, last night /week /month /year; last Friday / October; three days/weeks ago; in 1999, how long ago?  

Past Continuous Tense

We use the past continuous:

· For an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. We don’t mention when the action started or finished. At 8 o’clock this morning I was getting ready for work.

· For an action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (a longer action) and the past simple for the action which interrupted it (a shorter one). They were walking to the station when they saw the accident.

· For two or more simultaneous actions in the past. The children were playing in the garden while their mother was trimming the hedges.

· To describe the atmosphere, setting or to give background information to a story. When I woke up I found the sun was shining and the temperature was rising fast. Liz was making breakfast in the kitchen while John and Sarah were drinking coffee on the balcony. Suddenly somebody knocked at the door. It was Liz. She came to discuss the latest news with me, etc.

The time expressions used with the past continuous: while, when, as, all morning/evening/day/week

Past Perfect Tense

We use the past perfect:

· For an action which happened before another past action or before a stated time in the past. We had finished dinner by the time they arrived / before they arrived.

· For an action which finished in the past and whose result was visible at a later point in the past. He had worked much that evening and he looked tired.

The time expressions used with the past perfect: before, after, already, just, for, since, till/until, when, by the time, never  

Past Perfect -Continuous Tense

We use the past perfect -continuous:

· To put emphasis on the duration of an action which started and finished in the past, before another action or stated time in the past, usually with the words How long, for or since, byorbefore. I had been waiting for half an hour before the bus came.

· For an action which lasted for some time in the past and whose result was visible in the past. She had been swimming and her hair was still wet.

Note: with the verbs live, work, teach and feel we can use the past perfect or the past perfect- continuous with no difference in meaning.

- He had taught/had been teaching at the school for more than twenty years by 2001.

The time expressions used with the past perfect- continuous: for, since, how long, before, until, by 2 o’clock yesterday, by that time, by then.  



Future Simple Tense (will + bare infinitive)

We use the future simple:

· For predictions about the future, based on what we think, believe or imagine, using the verbs think, believe, expectetc, the expressions be sure, be afraid, etc, and the adverbs probably, certainly, perhaps, etc. I'm sure Bill will get the job.


· For decisions made at the moment of speaking – on the spot decision. We've run out of milk. I’ll go to the supermarket and get some.

· For promises, threats, warnings, requests, hopes and offers. Will you help me with my history essay?

· For actions, events, situations which will definitely happen in the future and which we can’t control. Ben will be five years old in August.

Be going to

We use be going to:

· For plans, intentions or ambitions for the future, it is not exact an event will happen.I’m going to go to India one day.

· Actions we have already decided to do in the near future but we haven’t arranged them to do. Nicky is going to visit her friends in London next weekend.

· Exact predictions based on what we can see or what we know, especially when there is evidence that something will happen. There isn't any cloud in the sky. It is going to be a nice day.

Time expressions used with the future simple and be going to: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, think, believe, expect,be sure, be afraid, probably, certainly, perhaps, I promise / hope, soon, next week/month/year/summer etc, in a week/month etc.  

Future Continuous Tense (will be + present participle)

We use the future continuous:

· For actions which will be in progress at a stated future time.

I'm going on holiday to Spain. This time next week l’ll be lying in the sun,

· For actions which willl definitely happen in the future as the result of a routine or arrangement.

She will be playing tennis with Andrew tomorrow morning.

· When we ask politely about someone’s plans for the near future to use the information for ourselves.

Will yoube driving to the party tonight? Yes, why? I want to be there too.

Time expressions used with the future continuous: at 2 o’clock tomorrow, this time next year, etc.  

Future Perfect Tense (will have + past participle)

We use the future perfect:

· For an action which will be finished before a stated future time. They will have arrived in London by 5 o'clock.

Time expressions used with the future perfect: before, by, by then, by the time, until/till  


Note: until/till are only used in negative sentences:

- She will not have finished the report until/till 6 o'clock. She will have finished the report by 6:30 (not until.)

Future Perfect -Continuous Tense (will have been + present participle)

We use the future perfect continuous:

· To emphasise the duration of an action up to a certain time in the future. By June, he will have been teaching in this school for fifteen years.

Note:The future perfect- continuous is used with by... for.



Question tags are short questions at the end of statements used to confirm if the statement is true or not.

· They areformed with the auxiliary verb from the main sentence (forms of the verb ‘to be’, modal verbs, forms of the verb ‘to do’ and the appropriate subject pronoun.)

· A positive statement takes a negative question tag. You are coming with us, aren't you?

· A negative statement takes a positive question tag. He can't speak English, can he?

Remember: when there are no forms of the verb to be or modal verb we use do/does or did + subject pronoun. Helen works for Kyivstar, doesn't she? He doesn’t like classical music, does he?



· When the statement contains a negative adverb of frequency such as rarely, never, hardly, seldom, we use a positive question tag. She never watches TV, does she?

· The question tags of some verbs/expressions are formed differently. I am invited to the party, aren't I?

Imperative sentences:

- Leave me alone, will/won't you?

- Don't tell anyone, will you?

- Let's have a picnic, shall we?

- There is some ice in the fridge, isn't there?

- There are a few biscuits left, aren't there?

- He has got a motorbike, hasn 't he?


- You have enough money, don't you?

- This is/That is Jane's bag, isn't it?


1. When you are sure of the answer and expect agreement, your voice goes down in the question tag.

- He has lived abroad, hasn't he?

2. When you are not sure of the answer, your voice goes up in the question tag.

- You don’t eat meat, do you?



Types Conditional clause Main clause Examples
Type 1: Real situations, refer to the present or future tense If +Present tense Future Simple: will + inf / present tense If I have money, I will buy a car. If the weather is fine, we will go for a walk.
Type 2: Unreal or unprobable situations, refer to the present or future tense If + Past Simple -‘to be’ is used in the past plural form Future-in-the Past Simple: would / could + inf If I were a princess, I would live in a palace. If I had money, I would buy a car. If I were you, I would stay here.
Type 3: Unreal situations, refer to the past tense If + Past Perfect Future-in-the Past Perfect: would /could + present perfect If I had had money last year, I would have bought a car.

Mind the punctuation:

If I have enough money, conditional clause I will go to Japan. main clause
I will go to Japan main clause if I have enough money conditional clause



4. Forms of the infinitive: INFINITIVE, BARE INFINITIVE and GERUND (-ing form)

The infinitive, infinitive without to or –ing form are often used in speech. Every form has special rules when to be used. Stugy the examples:

- I want to play the piano well.

- He can play the piano.

- I like playing the piano.

Study the information when to use infinitives.

The verb tenses corresponding to the tenses of the infinitive are as follows:

ü The present infinitive refers to the present or future.

- I expect to find out my exam results soon (active). I hope to be accepted at Leeds University (passive).

ü The present continuous infinitive refers to an action happening at the time of speaking.

- Dave appears to be studying at the moment.

ü The perfect infinitive refers to the past. It shows that the action of the infinitive happened before the action of the verb.

- The boys claim to have finished their homework, (active). Their homework appears to have been finished (passive.)

ü The perfect continuous infinitive refers to the past. It emphasises the duration of the action of the infinitive which happened before the action of the verb.

- He seems to have been working constantly for the last couple of weeks.

Note: the perfect infinitive and the perfect continuous infinitive are used with modal verbs and verbs such as seem, claim, expect, believe, and appear.

The to-infinitive is used:

· To express purpose. Carl went to the shop to buy some bread.

· After certain verbs (agree, advise, afford, allow, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse, tend, observe, want, wish,etc).

- She hopes to get a promotion.

- He promised to help me.

· After adjectives which describe feelings/emotions (happy, sad, glad, etc.); express willingness/unwillingness (be willing, eager, reluctant, etc.); refer to 3rd person’s character (clever, kind etc) and the adjectives (un)lucky and (un)fortunate.

- I was very lucky to win the race.

- He is clever to understand the situation.

- I’m glad to see you.

Note: With adjectives that refer to character we can also use an impersonal construction.

It was kind of you to give John a lift.

· After certain nouns and pronouns (something, anyone etc) to show that something is necessary or possible. Was there anyone there to help you?

· After too/enough. Vanessa is too impatient to wait in a queue. Mike isn't old enough to vote.

· To talk about an unexpected event usually with only. I got home only to find that I had forgotten my keys.

· With it + be + adjective/noun. It was difficult to solve the problem.

· After be + first/second/next/last etc. She was the last person to finish the exam.

· After verbs and expressions such as ask, learn, explain, decide, find out, want, want to know etc when they followed by question words (who, what, where, how, etc. ‘Why’ is not followed by an infinitive.

- She explained what we had to do.

- I asked how to react in this situation.

BUT:wonder why is followed by a clause (NOT an infinitive). I wonder why she didn't tell us.

· After would like, would prefer, would love to express a specific preference.

- I would like / I’d like to watch this film again some day.

· Inthe expressions to tell the truth, to be honest, to sum up, to begin with,etc.

- To be honest, I have to go: I’m too tired.

Note: if two to-infinitives are linked by and or or, the to of the second infinitive can be omitted.

- She promised to call and tell what was happening.

Infinitive without ‘to’ / BARE infinitiveis used:

· After most modal verbs: can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, etc. Greg can play the piano.

· After had better, would rather:

- I’d rather go.

- I’d better go to bed.

· After the verbs let, makeandsee, hear, listen to, notice and feel(to describe a complete action in the Active forms).

- Her boss made her work overtime.

- Let me stay with you.

- I listened to Jill sing a song / I listened to her from beginning to end: a complete action.

BUT: we use the to-infinitive after be made, be heard, be seen, etc (passive form).

- She was made to read foreign words hundreds times.

NOte: when see, hear and watch are followed by an -ing form there is no change in the passive.

- She Saw me talking to Anna. - I was seen talking to Anna.

Helpcan be followed by either the to-infinitive or bare infinitive.

- She helped me (to) paint my flat.

Gerund / the -ing form


Forms of the –ing form: Present (visiting) and Perfect (having visited.)

· The present –ing form refers to the present or future.

- He hates walking to work. He hates being visited on Sundays.

· The perfect –ing formshows that the action of the –ing form happened before the action of the verb.

-He avoided answering / having answered the question.

The –ing form is used:

· as a noun: Swimming is a great way to get fit.

· after certain verbs: admit, appreciate, avoid, confess, continue, deny, discuss, enjoy, excuse, finish, forgive, go(in for activities),imagine, mind, miss, keep(continue),practice, suggest, recollect, report, understand, quit, etc. I appreciate your coming to us in time.

· after love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, hate to express general preference. Tom is a workaholic, He hates wasting time.

BUT: for a specific preference (would like, would prefer, would love) we use a to-infinitive.

- I’d love to go there wiith my friends.

· after expressions such as be busy, it's no use, it's (no) good, it's (not) worth, what's the use of, can't help, there's no point in, can't stand, have difficulty (in), have trouble etc.I am busy writinga report.

· after spend, waste,or lose(time, money, etc). We wasteda tot of time fixingthe computer.

· after verbs and expressions such as look forward to, be used to, in addition to, object to, prefer(doing sth to sth else). - He isn't used to living alone.

· after prepositions. Elaine is scared of flying.

· after the verbs hear, listen to, notice, see, watch,and feelto describe an incomplete action. I heardSamantba talking on the phone. (I only heard part of the conversation).

BUT:we use the infinitive without towith hear, listen to, notice, see, watch,and feelto describe the complete action. I heard Samantha tell the story. (I heard the whole story).


Difference in meaning between the to-infinitive and the -ing form:

Some verbs can take either the to-infinitive orthe -ing form but witha change in meaning.


forget + to-infinitive = not remember -He forgot to buy milk.

forget + -ing form =not recall -I'll never forget visiting Egypt.

remember + to-infinitive = not forget-Did you remember to call Lucy?

remember + -ing form = recall -I remember coming here before.

mean + to-infinitive = intend to - He never meant to upset her.

mean + -ing form =involve - Being a firefighter means taking risks.

regret + to-infinitive= be sorry to (normally used in the present simple with verbs such as say, tell, inform) -I regret to inform you that your phone has been cutoff.

regret + -ing form= feel sorry about - He is going to regret selling his record collection.




· Weuse the comparative formto compare two people, things, places, etc. We usuallyuse thanwith comparative adjectives.

- Mary is younger than Jane.

- Tim is much shorter than Nick.

- The plain is more expensive than the train.

· Weuse the superlative formto compare one person/thing/etcwith more than one person/thing/etcin the same group. We use the... of/inwith superlative adjectives. We use inwith the superlative when we talk about places.

- It's the most expensive necklace in the shop. (NOT; of the shop)

- He is by far the most intelligent.

- He is the most intelligent of all.

- You are the best!


· With one-syllableadjectives ending in -e,we add -rin the comparative and -stin the superlative form

nice - nicer the nicest

· With one-syllable adjectives ending in a stressed vowel + a consonant,we double the last consonant and add –er /est.

thin - thinner the thinnest

· With two-syllable adjectives ending in -ly or -y, we change the -yto iand add -er/-est.

narrow – narrower – the narrowest

· Some one-syllable adjectives of abstract meaning such as: clear, safe, true, free, wise, etc and two-syllable adjectives such as: clever, common, stupid, narrow, gentle, friendly, simple, easy, etc. take either –er/-est or more/most.

friendly – more friendly than – the most friendly or

friendly – friendlier than – the friendliest

· The comparative of adjectives of three or more syllables is formed with more and the superlative with the most.

difficult – more difficult than – the most difficult

Compare regular and irregular comparatives and superlatives:

  Adjective Comparative   Superlative   Adjective Comparative Superlative
Short adjectives big small bigger smaller   the biggest the smallest Irregular forms good bad little many much better worse less more the best the worst the least the most
-y adjectives noisy noisier the noisiest                
longer adjectives beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful            



We use adjectives or their comparative and superlative forms to make comparisons.


· very + adjective(emphasises adjective). George is a very good student.


· as+ adjective + as{to show that two people or things are similar in some way. In negative sentences we use not as/so ... as). I'm sure Brian is as clever as Polly.

· less + adjective + than(expresses the difference between two people or things. The opposite of more... than). The sequel was less successful than the original.

· the least + adjective + of/in(compares one person or thing to two or more people or things in the same group. The opposite of most... of/in). It’s the least expensive restaurant in the city.

Comparative forms:

· much/a lot/far/a little/a bit/slightly/even+ comparative(expresses the degree of difference between two people or things):

- Anna is much younger than Steve. - Riding a motorbike is a lot more dangerous than driving a car. She was far happier when she only worked part time. -1 think it’s a little warmer than it was yesterday. - It was a bit more expensive than I thought it would be. -She said that the second exam was slightly easier than the first one. - Since his operation, he has been walking even more slowly.

BUT: many more + uncountable noun:

- Tom ate many more biscuits than Paul.

· comparative + comparativeshows that something is increasing or decreasing

- We seem to start later and later every day.

· the + comparative..., the + comparative(shows that two things change together or that one thing depends on another thing):

- The longer the journey went on, the more beautiful the scenery became.

Superlative forms:

· We use thewith a superlative:

- It was the happiestday of my life.

- Everest is the highestmountain in the world.

- That’s the bestfilm I have seen this year.

- I have three sisters, Jan is the eldest and Angela is the youngest .

· You can form superlative adjectives in two ways as well. You can add estto the end of the adjective, or you can use the mostor the leastbefore it. Do not, however, do both! You violate another grammatical rule if using two superlative forms.

· One-syllable words generally take estat the end, as in these examples:

- Max is the wisest person I’ve ever met.

- Of all the students in the group, Max is the worst.

- King Kong was the biggest gorilla ever.

· Two-syllable words vary. Check out the example:

- Because Greg refuses to read directions, he made the crispiest mashed potatoes ever in the history of instant food.

· Use mostor leastbefore adjectives with three or more syllables:

- Who is the most intelligent person in your family?

- I’ve chosen to buy the least expensive hat.

· by far + the+ superlative(emphasises the difference between one person or thing and two or more people or things in the same group):

- He is by far the best player in the team.


The table consists of three forms: the 1st introduces infinitives of the verbs, the 2nd - past simpleforms and the 3rd – past participles to be used in perfect forms or passive voice.


1. arise arose arisen піднімати (ся)
2. be was, were been бути
3. bear bore born нести, народжувати
4.become became become ставати кимось, чимось
5.begin began begun починати(ся)
6. bend bent bent гнути
7. bind bound bound зв’язувати
8. bite bit bitten кусати
9. bleed bled bled сходити кров’ю
10.blow blew blown дути
11. break broke broken ламати, повідомляти (новину)
12. breed bred bred вирощувати
13. bring brought brought приносити
14. build built built будувати
15.burn burnt burnt горіти, палити
16.buy bought bought купувати
17.cast cast cast розкидати
18. catch caught caught ловити
19. choose chose chosen вибирати
20. come came come приходити
21. cost cost cost коштувати
22. cut cut cut різати
23. dig dug dug рити, копати
24.do did done робити, виконувати
25. draw drew drawn малювати, притягувати
26. dream dreamt dreamt мріяти, снитися
27. drink drank drunk пити
28. drive drove driven керувати авто
29.eat ate eaten їсти
30.fall fell fallen падати
31.feed fed fed годувати
32.feel felt felt почувати (ce6e)
33. fight fought fought битися, боротися
34.find found found знаходити
35.flee fled fled тікати, рятуватися
36. fly flew flown літати
37. forget forgot forgotten забувати
38. get got got отримувати, розуміти, добиратися
39. give gave given давати
40. go went gone іти, їхати .
41. grow grew grown виростити
42. hang hung hung висіти
43.have had had мати (щось)
44. hear heard heard чути  
45.hide hid hidden ховатися  
46.hold held held тримати  
47. keep kept kept тримати, зберігати  
48. know knew known знати  
49. lead led led лідирувати, вести за собою  
50. learn learnt learnt вчити(ся)  
51. leave left left залишати, покидати  
52. lend lent lent позичати  
53. let let let дозволяти, здавати в оренду  
54. light lit lit світити  
55. lose lost lost втрачати  
56. make made made робити руками (помилку)  
57. mean meant meant означати  
58. meet met met зустрічати, знайомитися  
59. put put put класти  
60. read read read читати  
61. ride rode ridden кататися  
62. rise rose risen підніматися  
63.run ran run бігти, їхати (про транспорт)  
64. say said said сказати  
65. see saw seen бачити  
66.sell sold sold продавати  
67. send sent sent посилати  
68. set set set налаштувати, встановити
69. shake shook shaken трясти
70. shine shone shone світити
71. shoot shot shot стріляти
72. shut shut shut закривати
73. sing sang sung співати
74. sink sank sunk потонути
75. sit sat sat сидіти
76. sleep slept slept спати
77. smell smelt smelt пахнути, нюхати
78. speak spoke spoken говорити, розмовляти
79. spend spent spent тратити, проводити (час)
80. spoil spoilt spoilt псувати
81. spread spread spread поширювати, намащувати
82. spring sprang sprung стрибати
83. stand stood stood стояти
84. steal stole stolen красти
85. stick stuck stuck приклеювати, дотримуватись
86. sting stung stung жалити
87. stride strode stridden крокувати
88. strike struck struck бити, страйкувати
89. strive strove striven старатися
90. swear swore sworn присягатися
91. sweep swept swept підмітати
92. swim swam swum плавати
93. swing swung swung гойдатися, мінятися
94. take took taken брати
95. teach taught taught навчати
96. tear tore torn рвати на шматки
97. tell told told розповідати
98. think thought thought думати
99. throw threw thrown кидати
100. thrust thrust thrust штовхати
101. tread trod trodden ступати
102. understand understood understood розуміти
103. upset upset upset засмучуватися
104. wake woke woken прокидатися
105. wear wore worn носити, одягатися
106. weave wove woven ткати
107. weep wept wept плакати
108. win won won перемагати, вигравати
109.wind wound wound заводити
110. withdraw withdrew withdrawn брати назад, відкликати
111. wring wrung wrung скручувати
112. write wrote written писати
113. hit hit hit вдарити


Навчальне видання



Гудій Світлана Олексіївна,

Махінов Віктор Миколайович



Посібник з інтенсивного навчання англійської мови

(для студентів ВНЗ спеціальності «Початкова освіта»)



Частина перша



Підписано до друку 19.06.2013 р. Формат 60x84/ 16.

Папір офсетний. Гарнітура Times.

Ум. др. арк. 8,37. Обл.-вид. арк. 5,17.

Наклад прим. Зам. № ____

Віддруковано з оригіналів.


Видавництво Національного педагогічного університету

імені М.П. Драгоманова. 01601, м. Київ-30, вул. Пирогова, 9

Свідоцтво про реєстрацію ДК № 1101 від 29.10.2002. (044) 234-75-87

Віддруковано в друкарні Національного педагогічного університету

імені М.П. Драгоманова (044) 239-30-26



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Читайте в этой же книге: Study grammar references first then a table below. | A). Look at the calendar which shows his arrangements for the next few months and then make up sentences, as in the example. | Text A. Great Britain | Translate into Ukrainian. | A. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. | Stratford-on- Avon | Grammar and Vocabulary | Text A. Portrait of Ukraine | Use the vocabulary of the texts A, B, C and your own experience to write about your country or the place where you live. | SUPPLEMENTARY PART |
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