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A) Cholesterol and Health

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Cholesterol (=fatty substance found in the body tissue and blood of all animals)only becomes a problem when you have too much of it, and it starts to promote the production of a fatty plaque (=unwanted substance that forms on the surface of the arteries)that can clog the arteries. Interruption of blood flow to a main heart vessel can cause a heart attack; a blocked blood vessel on the way to the brain could cause a stroke.

Some say that cholesterol-rich foods such as eggs, shellfish and offal should be banished from the diet, but these foods don’t significantly raise cholesterol levels. The cholesterol in them is broken down quite efficiently and then excreted (=got rid of from the body), so they are fine to eat in moderation.

Fibre (=substance in food that travels through the body as waste, helping digestion)produces substances that help to clear the blood of bad cholesterol and acts as a buffer, so less fat is brought into contact with blood vessels and less is absorbed. Fibre also keeps bad cholesterol within the gut(=tubes that carry from the stomach)from where it can be excreted.


B) The Balanced Diet


1) Which do you usually eat? 7) How many times a week do you eat

butter 3 high or medium-fat cheese?

margarine 2 five or more 3

nothing 0 three to five 2

once or twice a week 1

2) Which do you usually use for occasionally/never 0


meat fat, butter, margarine 3 8) How many times a week do you eat

vegetable oil 2 chocolate?

corn, sunflower, olive 1 six or more 3

three to five 2

3) How many times a week do you eat once or twice 1

chips? occasionally/never 0

five or more 3

two to four 2 9) How often do you eat meat?

once 1 twice a day 4

occasionally/never 0 once a day 2

most days 1

4) How often do you eat cream or ice- never 0


Every day 3 10)How many times a week do you

Several times a week 2 eat sausages/meat pies/burgers?

About once a week 1 Six or more 3

Less than once a week/never 0 Three to five 2

Once or twice 1

5) Which type of milk do you drink? Occasionally/never 0

full fat 3

semi-skimmed 1 11) If you have a choice of how to

skimmed/none 0 cook meat, how do you cook it?

fry 3

6) What type of cheese do you eat grill with adding oil 2

most of? grill without adding oil 1

high-fat (Cheddar, Stilton) 4

medium-fat (Camembert, Edam, Brie) 3 12) How many times a week do you

low-fat (cottage) 2 eat cakes, biscuits, or desserts?

variety 3 six or more 3

three to five 2

once or twice 1

occasionally/never 0



1) What kind of bread do you eat? 4) How many times a week do you

wholemeal 3 eat rice or pasta?

white 1 six or more 4

mixture 2 three to five 3

once or twice 2

2) How many slices of bread do you eat occasionally/never 0

a day?

six or more 4 5) How many times a week do you eat

three to five 3 boiled, mashed or jacket potatoes?

one or two 1 six or more 5

none 0 three to five 3

once or twice 2

3) How many times a week do you eat occasionally/never 0


six or more 4

three to five 3

once or twice 2

occasionally/never 0


If your fat total was less than your fibre total, well done.

If your fat total was about the same as your fibre total (within one or two points), try to cut down on fat.

If your fat total was greater than your fibre total, you need to make changes in your diet.

1.25. Read the text and answer the questions that follow.


The attitude to alcohol in Britain is ambivalent. On the one hand, it is accepted and welcomed as an integral part of British culture. The local pub plays an important role in almost every neighbourhood, and pubs, it should be noted, are predominantly for the drinking of beer and spirits. The nearest pub is commonly referred to as “the local” and people who go there often are known as “regulars”. The action in some popular television soaps in Britain revolves around a pub. Even a certain level of drunkenness is acceptable. Provided this does not lead to violence, there is no shame attached to it.

On the other hand, the puritan tradition has led to the widespread view that drinking is something potentially dangerous, which should therefore be restricted, in terms of both who can do it and where it can be done. Most people, including regular drinkers, consider that it would be wrong to give a child even half glass of beer. When, in 1993, research was published showing that nearly 70% of fifteen-year-old children in the country drank some alcohol in an average week, it was generally agreed that this was a serious social problem.

People cannot be served in pubs until the age of eighteen and they are not even allowed inside one (unless it has a special children’s certificate) until they are fourteen. For many people, drinking is confined tо pubs. Wine or beer is not as much a part of home life as it is in some other European countries. Most cafés are not allowed to serve even beer.

For most of the twentieth century, pubs operated under strict laws, which limited their opening hours. These have recently been relaxed. Moreover, many more types of shops now sell alcohol than previously. However, this lessening of the negative attitude tо alcohol has been balanced by increasing concerns about its impact on health and safety. There are government-sponsored guidelines, which state the maximum amount of alcohol it is advisable for people to drink in a week without endangering their health. Although millions of people pay little attention tо these, the general feeling that alcohol can be bad for you has increased. Moreover, the laws against drinking and driving have been strengthened and are fairly strictly observed.

Nevertheless, alcohol, especially beer, is an important part of the lives of many people. Notice, for example, the mass rush across the Channel after customs duties were changed in 1992. Beer was much cheaper in France and people were allowed to bring back almost as much as they liked. It was calculated that in that first year the single European market cost the British government about £250 million in lost taxes on alcohol.


a) What is the attitude to alcohol in Britain?

b) What role do pubs play in Britain?

c) How do the British bring up their children in respect of alcohol?

d) Is the situation with beer in Britain similar or different to that in Russia? What do you think about drinking beer? Discuss in class your suggestions, complaints, regrets, or misunderstandings.


1.26. Match the phrases on the left with the correct responses on the right. Work with a partner and make up short dialogues with these phrases.




1. Shall I make you a cup of coffee, Mary? a. Help yourself to a cream cake.

2. May I take my coat off? b. Certainly. Here you are.

3. (you open a door for someone to c. No, thanks. I’m driving.

go through)

4. Would you mind passing the salt, d. After you, please!

5. Do you need any help? e. No, thanks. I’ve had enough.

6. I’m so hungry. f. Yes, please.

7. Would you like a drink? g. So do you.

8. Do have some more ham, please. h. Yes, please do.

9. You look wonderful today. i. It’s all right, thanks. I can manage.

1.27. Recast the following orders into requests, using the model.



Model: Would /Could/ Can/ Will you … please.

1. Pass the sugar. 4. Have another glass of pineapple juice.

2. Have another helping of pudding. 5. Fix me a gin and tonic.

3. Help yourself to the French fries. 6. Have another whisky.


1.28. Make up short conversations from the hints below. Use the patterns below as models. these patterns.

a) A: Would you likea cup of tea?

B: No, thank you. I’d rather not. I’d prefer to havesome coffee, if you’ve got some.


glass of cider - a Coke; a slice of Swiss roll - a tomato sandwich;

a sausage roll - an apple pie; a cream cake - a fruit flan; some brandy - mineral water.

b) A:This strawberry flan is absolutely delicious.

B:Yes,it looks it. I wouldn’t minda slice myself.


cucumber sandwiches - one; fruit cake - a slice; ice-cream - one;

meringue - a piece; hot chocolate - a cup; white wine - a glass.

1.29. a) Choose between the pairs of activities below and tell a partner. Make up sentences using the following pattern. Add your variants.

I’d rather + verb

I'd prefer to + verb

1. eat the caviar/ eat the Swiss chocolate

2. have a dessert/ have a main course

3. have the steak rare/ have the steak well-done

4. have a glass of mineral water/ have a glass of champagne

b) Work in pairs. Ask for instructions, using the verb ‘shall’ and respond to it. Add more details to your short dialogues.

Model:make you a cup of tea> - Shall I make you acup of tea?

- Yes, please. I'd love one. / No, thank you.


fix you some Irish coffee; make you a cup of hot chocolate; fetch you a glass of champagne; fix you a screwdriver; put the kettle on for a pot of tea; switch the TV on; give you a hand with the dishes.


1.30. Work with a partner and a) respond to the following.

- Well, come on in.

- You’ve done a great job.

- You look wonderful today.

- Can I hang your coat up for you?

- Have some more shrimp cocktail, please!

- Shall I fix you a drink?

- Would you mind passing the cream, please?

- Could I have some brandy, please?

- Help yourself to some more pudding!

b) explain what you can say in the following situations.

a) you want some sugar for your coffee

b) your neighbour passes you the water

c) the hostess offers you some more cheesecake

d) you do not want any more roast beef

e) you want to offer your guests some salad

f) you show your guest into the room

g) you need a spoon


1.31. a) Work with a partner and read the dialogues. b) Act out similar dialogues, using the expressions in bold.

Having Dinner at Someone’s House


A: Why not come home and eat with us? You’ll have to take pot luck (= eat what we’re eating, noting special).

B: Thank you. Shall I bring a bottle? (= usually means a bottle of wine)



A: Should I wear a suit on Friday?

B: No, no, it isn’t a dinner party (= rather formal dinner with guests), it’s just an informal get-together (= informal group of people meeting for a meal/drinks/etc.).


A: Does anyone want seconds? (= a second helping/serving of a dish)

B: Oh, yes, please. It was delicious.



A: Can I pour you some juice? Say when (= tell me when I have served enough).

B: When! (= That’s enough, thanks.)

A: Help yourself to some nibbles (=things like nuts, crisps, etc., served before a meal).



A: We leave at six. We can grab a bite to eat on the way (=have a quick meal).

B: Or we could get a takeaway when we get there (= ready-cooked meal bought to take home)

c) Work in a group. Read the dialogue and make a similar dialogue. Is a formal or informal dinner?

A: Hello, Bob. How nice to see you. Come in, please. How are you?

B: Fine, thanks, Helen. You look very well today.

A: Thanks, Bob.

C: Hello, Bob. Let me take your coat.

B: Hello, Martin. Thanks, here you are. What a lovely house!

A: Thanks, I’m glad you like it. We’ve just redecorated it. Do come into the living-room and meet Mary. Mary, this is Bob Biltmore. Bob, this is Mary Morris.

B: How do you do?

D: How do you do?

C: Bob, what can I get you to drink?

B: I’ll have a Scotch and soda.

C: Here you are.

B: Thanks.

A: Dinner’s ready. Come into the dining-room, all of you. Bob, would you sit here, and Mary, would you sit over there.

E: I'm so sorry I’m late, Helen.

A: Never mind, Kate. I hope you don’t mind, but we’ve started.

E: It’s OK. I’m glad you have.

A: I’ll put the salad in the middle of the table. Shall I serve you?

B: No, it’s all right. We can help ourselves.

A: Martin, could you pour the wine, please. Would you like some pork chop, Mary?

D: Yes, please.

A: More?

D: No, thanks. This is fine.

C: Would you pass the salt, please, Helen?

A: Oh, sorry. Here you are. Bob, help yourself to some vegetables, too.

B: Oh, no, thank you. I'm completely full. The pork was delicious.

A: Thank you. I’m glad you enjoyed it.

C: Can I get anyone coffee or a drink?

B: Could I have a regular coffee, please?

C: Sure. Here you are.

B: Thank you.

D: I’m afraid I have to be going. I have to get up very early tomorrow. Thank you very much for a lovely evening.

A: Don’t mention it. I’m so glad you could come.

B: I say, you go my way, don’t you? Would you like a lift?

D: Oh, thank you very much. That’s very kind of you.

B: Thank you for inviting me here. I had a wonderful time. It was nice meeting you, Kate.

E: See you around, Bob and Mary.

C: Here are your coats.

B&D:Thank you.

A: Please give my regards to your family, Bob.

B: Thanks, I will. Come on, Mary. Good-night and thanks again.

D: Good night.



1.32. Read the conversation “Mr. Miles Dines Out”. Answer the questions that follow.



Waiter: May I take your order, sir!

Mr. Miles: I haven’t seen the menu yet. May I have one, please?

Waiter: I’m sorry. Here it is, sir.

Mr. Miles: There are so many different dishes that it’s hard to decide.

Waiter: The a la carte dishes are on the left. The regular dinners are on the right

hand page.

Mr. Miles: I’ll have the regular dinner. I’m pretty hungry. With the regular dinner

I’ll get appetizer.

Waiter: Yes, sir. The regular dinner includes appetizer, soup, salad, choice of

desserts, tea or coffee.

Mr. Miles: Is there any particular dish you would recommend?

Waiter: The roast beef is very good tonight. We also have several good chicken

dishes, if you like chicken.

Mr. Miles: I’m not very fond of chicken, I’m afraid. I think I’ll try beefsteak. For

vegetable, give me French fries, please.

Waiter: How do you want your steak – rare, medium, or well done?

Mr. Miles: Well done, please. What salad do I get with dinner?

Waiter: We have a choice of lettuce and tomato or cucumber and beets.

Mr. Miles: I think tomato will do nicely. And what appetizer do you have?

Waiter: The appetizers are at the top of the page. You can have prawn cocktails,

fresh fruit cocktail, and tomato juice.

Mr. Miles: All right. That’s settled, then. I’ll have fruit cocktail to begin with and

roast beef with tomato salad to follow.

Waiter: Very good, sir. Anything for dessert?

Mr. Miles: What do you have for dessert?

Waiter: We have pie, chocolate pudding, ice-cream, tea or coffee.

Mr. Miles: Chocolate pudding, please.

Waiter: Here is your bill, sir. You can pay the cashier on your way out.



1. Why does Mr. Miles find it hard to make his choice of dishes?

2. What kind of dinner does he finally decide on?

3. What dishes does the regular dinner include?

4. What dishes does the waiter recommend?

5. Does Mr. Miles want his steak rare?

6. What does Mr. Miles order for dinner after all?

7. What’s there for dessert on the menu? What does Mr. Miles order for dessert?

8. Where is Mr. Miles to pay the bill?


1.33. a) Practice these dialogues with a partner.



1. - Have you decided on something, sir?

- Yes. Haddock and chips for me, please.

- How about the sweet?

- No sweet. Just coffee.

2. - May I take your order, sir?

- I’ll just take a small salad, please.

- Do you want any sweet?

- Apple pie and custard would be nice.

3. - Another piece of meat pie?

- No, thanks, really. I’m on a diet.

- Please, do. You’ve hardly eaten anything.

- It’s delicious.

4. - How about a nice cup of tea before you go?

- Yes, I’d love one.

- How do you like it?

- A strong one with three spoons for me, please.

5. - Can I take your order, sir?

- Yes, I’d like to try the steak, please.

- And to follow?

- Ice-cream, please.


b) Act out the following situations with a partner. Make use of the phrases below and from the previous activities.



Paying the bill

We’ll split the bill, shall we? (= each person will pay for him/herself)

Lunch is on me today. (informal: = I am paying for you)

Will you join us (= come with us) for dinner at the City Plaza hotel? We’d like you to be our guest. (formal: = we will pay)

Let me get this. (informal:= pay the bill this time)

I was wined and dined every night by our New York office (=invited out to restaurants).


1. You are having your dinner with a friend and discuss paying the bill.

2. You came to a new country earlier today and you would like to try some local dishes. You’ve dropped in some local restaurant and now are talking to a waiter. Ask him about specialties and what he could recommend you.

3. You are calling a restaurant to book a table for four for this Saturday. Discuss all the details: the location of the table, the dishes – starters, main courses, desserts, alcohol. One of your friends is a vegan and she needs a special menu.

4. You are to arrange meals for the delegates to the conference. Ask them about their food preferences and make up a menu for the week.


National fare What’s what on the menu
ACHMA- Georgian noodle and cheese dish BAKLAZHANNAYA IKRA – eggplant ‘caviar’ BARANINA – mutton BITOCHKI – meatballs BLINY – thin, leavened pancakes, crepes CHAI – tea CHICKEN TABAKA – flattened grilled chicken (Chicken Kiev) DOLMA – meat-stuffed grape leaves GOLUBTSY – cabbage leaves stuffed with ground meat GOVYADINA – beef GRIBY – mushrooms HACHAPURI – cheesy Georgian bread KULEBYAKA – fish- or cabbage-stuffed pastry KOTLETY – dish made of ground meat or vegetables LAVASH – flat Georgian bread LYULYA KEBAB – spiced ground mutton shashlik LOSOSINA – salmon PELMENI – Siberian meat-filled ravioli PIROZHKI – stuffed doughy turnovers PLOV – pilaf SHASHLYK – shish kebab SHCHI – cabbage / beet root soup SMETANA – sour cream SOSISKI – sausages VARENIKI – Ukrainian fruit-filled ravioli ZHARKOE – beef stew JULIENNE – mushrooms baked in sour cream  


1.35. Work in a small group. Discuss the following topics.


1. My usual menu for breakfast/ lunch/ dinner.

2. The most popular dish in Russia/ The Russian staple food.

3. Food I avoid eating.

4. My favourite food.

5. The most beautiful/ my favourite café /restaurant in my city.

6. The market places in my city.

7. The dishes my family prefer on an ordinary day/ on a holiday/ for a party.

8. Popular diets (based on calorie-counting, blood group, etc.).

1.36. a) Comment on the following proverbs and sayings about food and dieting. Which one do you like best? Why? Which one do you disagree with? Explain your choice.



Citations about food and dieting:

1. [Food is] part of the spiritual expression of the French, and I do not believe that they have ever heard of calories. (Beverly Baxter)

2. [Food is] a weapon. (Maxim Litvinov)

3. What is food to one man is bitter poison to others. (Lucretius)

4. [Food is that which explains] half the emotions of life. (Sydney Smith)

5. [Food is] the commonest cause of domestic strife. (Anonymous)

6. [Dieting is an activity which] shows what bad losers we all are. (MichaelCohen)

7. [Dieting is] a change that not even a healthy man can suffer. (Michel de Montaigne)

8. [Dieting is] a system of starving yourself to death so you can live a little longer. (Jan Murray)

9. [A gourmet is] a glutton in a dress suit. (Shannon Carse)

10. [A gourmet is] one who eats himself into the grave. (12th century proverb)

b) Think of situations which the following proverbs might suit.

1. “The proof of the pudding is in the eating”.

2. “You cannot eat your cake and have it”.

3. “Hunger is the best sauce”.



1.37. Read the recipes below. Discuss them in class.

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