Translate the words and phrases and try to pronounce them correctly.
transcontinental adj. crossing the continents
area n. geographical region of indefinite boundary
mineral and energy resources natural resources in the form of minerals: natural resources producing energy (gas, oil etc.)
border n. a line determining the limits of an area
population n. the people who inhabit a territory or state
vary v. become different
steppes n. huge plain without trees
plains n. flat open land
forests n. land that is covered with trees
tundra n. vast plain without trees in the arctic regions
taiga n. thick forests in the northern regions
mild adj. soft
heat n. high temperature
unbearable adj. impossible to bear, to stand
moderate adj. not extreme
continental adj. typical to Europe
Read the following text aloud:
Russia is a transcontinental country lying both in Asia and Europe. With an area of over 17000000 km², Russia is the largest country in the world. It has rich mineral and energy resources. Russia has the world's ninth-largest population. Russia shares land borders with 17 countries. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia is the Soviet Union's successor state in diplomatic matters.
Natural conditions of Russia vary greatly. There are steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midlands, tundra and taiga in the north. Because of its size, Russia's climate is also varied. In the south-west the weather is usually mild and wet. Northern Asia is one of the coldest places on earth. In the south the heat is unbearable, and the climate is subtropical. But in the middle of the country the climate is moderate and continental.
Russian is the official language of the country. Russian is also the language of such great writers as Pushkin, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Chekov, Pasternak and Solzhenitsyn.
Moscow is Russia's capital and largest city (population 8.3 million). Moscow is also important as an economic and business center. Its cultural tradition is rich, and there are many museums devoted to art, literature, music, dance, history, and science, as well as hundreds of churches and cathedrals.
I. Find in the text English equivalents for the following Russian phrases.
полезные ископаемые и энергетические ресурсы, девятый по величине, граничить, развал Советского Союза, государство-преемник, быть посвященным чему-то, собор.
II. Correct the statements if you find them wrong. Use such phrase as: I agree with you. You are right.or I’m afraid I don’t agree with you. That’s not true/right.
III. Answer the following questions using the text.
Discuss with your partner: a) the territory of Russia; b) the climate of Russia; c) the capital of Russia, using newly learnt words.
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