human resources manager -someone who employs people for a firm, also known as a personnel manager
deadlines –the dates or times when certain tasks must be completed
to work on your own initiative –to make decisions about your work without having to wait for someone else to help you
to multi-task –to do more than one piece of work at a time
a proven track record –evidence you've been successful in the past in your area of work
resources –things and people which can provide useful information
vacancies – jobs that no-one is doing that someone is needed to do
position –job, post
recruitment agencies –companies which have details of jobs and details of the people who might want them
III. The following text gives some suggestions which students might find helpful. But the sentences are not complete. Ask students to test their knowledge of the language of jobs by choosing the correct noun to fill the gaps.
Most jobs are advertised as current vacancies. They appear in the local and national press, trade journals, and specialist career publications. In addition, many professional bodies offer an appointments service which can help job seekers find a suitable position in a particular industry. Recruitment agencies hold details of a wide range of vacancies, and possibly local training schemes. The Internet is a valuable resource not only for vacancies but to find background information on companies. Approximately one third of jobs are never advertised, but may be found by approaching a company directly. This is called a speculative application, and is common among students starting at the bottom of the career ladder. Finally, don't forget to use your personal contacts!
BBC Learning English
Explain students the formation of the Future Simple Tense. Use books “Essential Grammar In Use. A self-study reference and practice book for elementary and intermediate students of English.” by Raymond Murphy.
Ask students to listen about stylistic difference between “I shall” and “I will” in the Future Simple Tense from BBC Learning English (02:08 min) and write down examples.
A question from Zuzana in the Czech Republic:
Hello. I am Zuzana; I am calling from the Czech Republic. And I would like to know if there is any serious stylistic difference between 'I shall' and 'I will' in the future simple tense, and if 'I will' is, for example, unacceptable in a particular society, and if 'I will' can be considered as a mistake in an exam.
George Pickering answers:
Well Zuzana, thank you very much for your very interesting question. The first thing I want to say is I wouldn't worry about trying to use 'shall' rather than 'will'. I can think of no social situations where using 'will' instead of 'shall' would cause social offence.
In fact, in modern English, 'shall' is rarely used in American English and only in specific situations in British English. 'Will' is the dominant form today.
So when giving information about the future and making predictions, we can use either 'shall' or 'will' with the 'I' and 'we' forms.
So we can say either, ‘I shall be ready at 8 o’clock’ or ‘I will be ready at 8 o'clock’.
In both cases the contracted form is 'I’ll'. We would normally use 'will' with 'you', 'he', 'she', 'it' and 'they'.
For example, 'Tomorrow it will be cold and foggy with light showers in the east.'
Do you understand?
Yeah, I understand it. Thank you.
George Pickering responds:
Check students’ answers.
Then ask students to listen about stylistic difference between “I shall” and “I will” from BBC Learning English once more. Ask students to tell what the audio file is about.
Ask students to listen difference in meaning between “will” and “going to” from BBC Learning English (03:12 min).
Anna from The Netherlands wants to know the difference in meaning between 'will' and 'going to'. So should I say for instance 'I will go the market at four' or should it be: 'I'm going to the market at four?'
Sian Harris answers:
Based on your actual examples – 'I will go to the market at 4' and 'I'm going to the market at 4' – I think it's actually worth looking at 3 possible verb forms for the future: Will, going to do, and finally, in the case of your example, I'm going.
So let's start by looking at how we use will and the bare infinitive, as in your example 'will go'. This verb tense is known as the future simple, and has several functions. One of the most common is to express a prediction – that is a guess or a subjective opinion – about the future, when we've not made any definite arrangement, but just think that something is probable, or likely to happen at the time of speaking.
If I asked you the question: who do you think will win the World Cup? I'm guessing that you (Anna) might say 'I think Holland will win', and you might also feel really confident about that. But I think even the most passionate football supporter would agree the final result (of a football tournament that hasn't yet finished) can't be thought of as definite or something that has been arranged in advance.
In a similar way, we also use 'will' for decisions, offers, promises or threats that are spontaneous, or made quickly at the moment of speaking. The speaker hasn't decided before.
If you saw the sun was shining outside, you might say 'It's a beautiful day, I think I'll – or I will – go for a swim later', or 'maybe I'll phone my friends and organise a picnic'.
In all of these situations, the common link is that there are no definite arrangements for these events. No decision has been made before speaking.
Moving on now to a different structure: Going to + bare infinitive, which is sometimes used quite interchangeably with 'will'. This has a particular function for stronger predictions, perhaps when there's some present evidence to suggest something will happen: 'Ella's a really good student, I think she's going to be a brain surgeon when she gets older.'
We also use this structure when we have a personal intention, or are making a resolution or decision to do something, as in, 'I'm going to stop eating so much chocolate this year'.
In a context where you have not only decided to do something but also made all the arrangements, sometimes referred to as 'diary future', we're more likely to use a present verb tense, the present continuous – am/is/are + ING form of the verb, as you have in your second sentence 'I'm going to the market at 4'. We use this form for future events that are booked and already arranged, and which we consequently feel are definitely going to happen. For example, I'm flying to France on Sunday, we're buying a house or I'm meeting my boss at 2.
So while there's often a confusion between these forms I hope those examples have helped to clarify the key difference for you. Thanks Anna.
Check students’ answers.
Then ask students to listen about difference in meaning between “will” and “going to” from BBC Learning English once more. Ask students to tell what the audio file is about.
I. Ask students to compose a ten sentences story about your plans for the future using the Future Simple and “going to”. They should to present it to the group.
II. Group discussion. What are the main steps in making a career? The role of the Internet in career prospects.
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