Б1.Б.3. ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)
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ББК 812 Ангя7
Рекомендовано к изданию методической комиссией факультета Землеустройства и лесного хозяйства, протокол № 7 от 11 мая 2012г.
Составитель к.ф.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков З.Н. Изимариева
Рецензент: к.с.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков Р.М. Нутфулина
Ответственный за выпуск: зав. кафедрой английского языка к.ф.н., доцент О.Н.Новикова
1. What is engineering?
2. From the history of human dwellings
3. Why do we build?
6. Construction materials
7. Building materials in the hot climate zones
12. Building parts
13. Climatic and weather conditions
1. What is engineering?
In general, engineering is a science that deals with design, construction and operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices. Engineer is a person who has received technical education and has a basic knowledge of other engineering fields. The term engineering is difficult to translate into Russian because it has a lot of meanings. Most often it is translated as: инженерное дело, техника, машиностроение, строительство. There exist the following main branches of engineering:Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Safety Engineering and others.
Civil engineering deals with the design of large buildings, roads, bridges, dams, canals, railway lines, airports, tunnels and other constructions. A civil engineer must have a thorough knowledge of the properties and mechanics of construction materials, the mechanics of structures and soils, and of hydraulics and fluid mechanics. Among the main subdivisions in this field are construction engineering, transports engineer and hydraulic engineering.
From the history of human dwellings
Most of the time of a modern man is spent within the walls of some building. Houses are built for dwelling. Large buildings are constructed for industrial purposes. Theatres, museums, public and scientific institutions are built for cultural activities of the people. The purposes of modern buildings differ widely, but all of them originate from the efforts of primitive men to protect primitive men from stormy weather, wild animals and human enemies.
When the Ice Age had passed, Europe remained very cold, at least in winter, and so the people of the Old Stone Age had to find some warm and dry place to shelter from bad weather. They chose caves, dwelling places that storm and cold could not destroy. On the walls of their caves ancient people painted pictures. Such caves are found in Europe, Asia and Africa. When man began to build a home for himself, caves were imitated in stone structures.
In the days of early civilization, once men had learnt how to build simple houses for their families. At first the difference was mainly in size - the chief or leader had a larger hut or tent than the rest of the people. Much later, when men began to build towns, there grew up a difference between town houses and country houses. The streets in towns were very narrow and there was not much place for building within the town walls, and therefore houses were higher than they were in the country.
In the country ordinary people lived in simple one-storey cottages which did not differ much from the mud and stone huts of an earlier age.
The rich people in the country built huge castles with thick walls and narrow windows. These castles were built not only as dwellings, but also to stand up to enemy attack and to be strong bases in time of war.
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