The use of the Present Indefinite instead of the Past Indefinite – the Historical Present.
In describing some past events the author uses the present tense, thus achieving a more vivid picturisation of what was going on.
The use of shall in the second and third person may also be regarded as an expressive means. Compare:
“He shall do it”(= I shall make him do it) In such cases shall always gets emphatic stress.
He has to do it (= It is necessary for him to do it).
Word-building expressive means
Connotational potential of an affix.
Suffix ‘-ish’ -
Added to adjectives: brown – brownish (emotionally neutral variant – shows the presence of a small amount of some quality);
baldish, biggish, dullish (‘tactful’ words, occasionalisms);
Added to noun: childish, doggish, goatish, sheepish (adjectives with a negative, sometimes contemptuous, connotation); girlish, boyish – exceptions;
Added to compound words: stand-offish, honey-moonish (strengthens the negative attitude of the speaker or writer);
Added to names; Dickenish, Mark Twainish (adds scornful shade of meaning);
But suffix ‘-ian’ can give some elevation characteristic of bookish style: Darwinian, Dickensian , Shakespearian.
The most important noun suffixes giving negative connotation are:
‘-a rd ‘ - drunkard, coward;
‘-ster’ - gangster, hipster, oldster;
‘-eer’ - profiteer, black-marketeer.
Some negative affixes are expressive, their expressiveness being based on imagery. The negation can be looked upon as a compressed one-member antithesis.
unbending - rigid
unerring - accurate (The synonyms have no negative affixes.)
unmask - reveal
“Blow, blow thou winter wind
Thou art not so unkind
As man’s ingratitude.” (W.Shakespeare)
The diminutive suffixes add some emotional colouring to the words. They indicate not only small dimensions of the object but also the attitude of the speaker or writer (tenderness, scorn, joke).
-y(ie) - daddy, lassie, dearie, oldie;
-let - chicklet, streamlet, starlet;
-kin - lambkin.
Models of compound words where humorous impression is produced by unusual valence of the words.
boy-friend-in- chief (compare: Commander In –Chief)
Сompound words (blackleg, cutthroat, sawbones).
Compound words built according to the phrase models (Miss what’s her name) usually have negative connotation.
Words with ‘lad’, ‘boy’,’ lass’ sound affectionately and have positive connotation. They belong to the colloquial style (Johnny-lad, Johnny-boy, Katy-lass).
Phrasal verbs are expressive and often have colloquial colouring, but they do not have emotional colouring. Their derivatives have attitudinal connotation (a pin-up, a pick-up).
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