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Functional styles in Modern English.

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Functional style is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. Classification of functional styles:

The Belles-Letters Functional style. The term “Belles-letters” is genetic for 3 substyles: poetry; emotive prose; drama. The Belles-letters style has its own specific function-informing the reader. The means of this functional style are: the use of words in its contextual meaning; the individual choice of vocabulary which reflects the author’s personal evaluation; a peculiar individual selection of syntax; Poetry. Peculiarities rhythm and rhyme. Emotive prose is a combination of literary variant of the language and colloquial. Emptive prose allows the use of elements of other styles, but the author changes them and fulfils the certain function. Drama -the language of plays mainly consists of dialogues. The author’s speech is in the form of stage remarks. The language of a play has following peculiarities: it is stylized; it presents the variety of spoken language; it monologue is never interrupted; character’s utterances are much longer than in ordinary conversation; 2) The Publicistic style treats certain political, social, economic, cultural problems. The aim of this style is to form public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener. Substyles: The Oratory ( makes use of a number of expressive means to keep the public’s interest: repetition, gradation, rhetorical questions, elements of colloquial speech), essay (is very subjective and the most colloquial of the all substyles of the publicistic style. It makes use of expressive means.), articles in newspapers and magazines. 3) The newspaper FS. Newspaper features: brief news items; advertisements and announcements; headlines. Brief items: its function is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. Specific features are: special political and economic terms; non-term political vocabulary; abbreviations. Headlines. The main function is to inform the reader briefly of what the news is follow about. Syntactically headlines are very short sentences, interrogative sentences, nominative sentences, elliptical sentences, headlines including direct speech. Advertisements and announcements. The function of advertisements and announcements is to inform the reader. 4) The Scientific Prose Style. The style of scientific prose has 3 subdivisions: 1) the style of humanitarian science; the style of “exact” science; the style of popular scientific prose. Its function is to work out and ground theoretically objective knowledge about reality. The aim of communication is to create new concepts, disclose international laws if existence. The peculiarities are: objectiveness, logical coherence, impersonality, unemotional character, exactness. The scientific prose style consists mostly of ordinary words, which tend to be used in their primary logical meaning. Humanities in comparison with “exact” science employ more emotionally colored words, fewer passive constructions. Scientific popular style has the following peculiarities: emotive words, elements of colloquial style. 5) The Style of Official documents and its Substyles: business letters, legal documents; language of diplomacy; military documents. The aim to reach agreement between two contracting parties. Legal documents contain a large proportion of formal and archaic words used in their dictionary meaning. 6) Colloquial Style is the type of speech which is used in situation that allows certain deviations from the rigid pattern of literary speech used not only in a private conversation, but also in private correspondence. So the style is applicable both to the written and oral varieties of the terms.


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