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Oppositional reductions (binary)

Neutralization /weak-strong

Transposition: strong-weak

How we express grammatical meaning:

Inflexions -pen-pens,

Sound alternation - replacive morpheme-man-men,

Analitycal means with the help of analytical forms (discontinuous morphemes)

Suppletivity-different roots for grammatical forms. I-me/go-went.

Syntagmatic relations are immediate linear relations between units in a segmental sequence. The combination of two words or word-groups one of which is modified by the other forms a unit which is reffered to as a syntactic ” syntagma”.

Language is opposed to speech and accordingly language units are opposed to speech units. The language unit phoneme is opposed to the speech unit – sound: phoneme /s/ can sound differently in speech - /s/ and /z/). The sentence is opposed to the utterance; the text is opposed to the discourse.

Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic relations.

A linguistic unit can enter into relations of two different kinds. It enters into paradigmatic relations with all the units that can also occur in the same environment. PR are relations based on the principles of similarity. They exist between the units that can substitute one another. For instance, in the word-group A PINT OF MILK the word PINT is in paradigmatic relations with the words bottle, cup, etc. The article A can enter into PR with the units the, this, one, same, etc. According to different principles of similarity PR can be of three types: semantic, formal and functional.

Semantic PR are based on the similarity of meaning: a book to read = a book for reading. He used to practice English every day – He would practice English every day.

Formal PR are based on the similarity of forms. Such relations exist between the members of a paradigm: man – men; play – played – will play – is playing.

Functional PR are based on the similarity of function. They are established between the elements that can occur in the same position. For instance, noun determiners: a, the, this, his, Ann’s, some, each, etc.

PR are associated with the sphere of ‘language’.

A linguistic unit enters into syntagmatic relations with other units of the same level it occurs with. SR exist at every language level. E.g. in the word-group A PINT OF MILK the word PINT contrasts SR with A, OF, MILK; within the word PINT – P, I, N and T are in syntagmatic relations. SR are linear relations, that is why they are manifested in speech. They can be of three different types: coordinate, subordinate and predicative.

Coordinate SR exist between the homogeneous linguistic units that are equal in rank, that is, they are the relations of independence: you and me; They were tired but happy.

Subordinate SR are the relations of dependence when one linguistic unit depends on the other: teach + er – morphological level; a smart student – word-group level; predicative and subordinate clauses – sentence level.

Predicative SR are the relations of interdependence: primary and secondary predication.

As mentioned above, SR may be observed in utterances, which is impossible when we deal with PR. Therefore, PR are identified with ‘language’ while SR are identified with ‘speech’.

20. Word is a minimum unity of a language whose property is a positional independence (the examples are given under). It has characteristics of mobility (different words-parts of speech take different positions in a sentence) and discrete (can exist separately unlike/in the contrast to the Morpheme that has a meaning but cannot exist separately).

For example:

Respect is a desirable attitude (subject).

He has been paid a lot of respect (object). positional independence and mobility We respect him (predicate).

When the word r espect is said or written or heard it can exist separately and be perceived and understood (discrete).

Morpheme is a minimum meaningful unity of word that does not have a positional independency (prefix takes the position in the beginning of the Word, root takes main central position in the midst and suffix – at the end). Thus, all the morphemes can be divided into two big groups, root morphemes and affixes

Kinds of Morphemes: 1) Root ( Is a part of a word which does not change and is always presented in any form of the word.For example: Black, black ish, black en. Black is a root morpheme.) 2) Affix (prefix, suffix): a) Inflective ( Serves to change the form of the same very word.For example: 1) I always invite him. He invite s me. I invite d him yesterday. 2) A boy – boy s.). 3) Word-formative (derivational) ( Serves to form new words. For example: Resist (action), resist ance (phenomenon), resist ant (characteristics), resist er (person), resist or (thing), resist ible (quality), ir resist ible (quality) ).

Word-combination can be called: 1) A phrase; 2) A word cluster / a cluster of words; 3) A word group / a group of words.

Definitions of Word-combination:

in the Occidental Linguistics In the Home Linguistics
Word-combination together with Sentence is the main unity of Syntax. It has two or more elements which are related syntactically, can vary its forms in accordance with the peculiarities of syntactic combinations of its elements and does not have the communicative direction. Syntactic unity which is called Word-combination is any syntactically organized group that consists of combination of Categorematic or Syntacategorematic words which are united with any type of syntactic connection.


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