Republican Britain (1649-1660). Oliver Cromwell as the leader of the republic. Cruel policy of Oliver Cromwell. The end of the Republic.
Republicanism in the United Kingdom is the movement which seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a republic that has a non-hereditary head of state. The method by which the head of state should be chosen is not agreed upon, with some favouring an elected president, some an appointed head of state with little power, and others supporting the idea of leaving the political system as it is but without a monarch.
Civil war broke out between Charles I and parliament in 1642. Although Cromwell lacked military experience, he created and led a superb force of cavalry, the 'Ironsides', and rose from the rank of captain to that of lieutenant-general in three years. He convinced parliament to establish a professional army - the New Model Army - which won the decisive victory over the king's forces at Naseby (1645). The king's alliance with the Scots and his subsequent defeat in the Second Civil War convinced Cromwell that the king must be brought to justice. He was a prime mover in the trial and execution of Charles I in 1649 and subsequently sought to win conservative support for the new republic by suppressing radial elements in the army. Cromwell became army commander and lord lieutenant of Ireland, where he crushed resistance with the massacres of the garrisons at Drogheda and Wexford (1649).
Cromwell then defeated the supporters of the king's son Charles II at Dunbar (1650) and Worcester (1651), effectively ending the civil war. In 1653, frustrated with lack of progress, he dissolved the rump of the Long Parliament and, after the failure of his Puritan convention (popularly known as Barebones Parliament) made himself lord protector. In 1657, he refused the offer of the crown. At home Lord Protector Cromwell reorganised the national church, established Puritanism, readmitted Jews into Britain and presided over a certain degree of religious tolerance. Abroad, he ended the war with Portugal (1653) and Holland (1654) and allied with France against Spain, defeating the Spanish at the Battle of the Dunes (1658). Cromwell died on 3 September 1658 in London. After the Restoration his body was dug up and hanged. Many of Cromwell's actions upon gaining power were decried as "harsh, unwise, and tyrannical"
The problem of definition of phraseological word-combination. Different approaches to the classification of phraseological units.
a word group with a fixed lexical composition and grammatical structure; its meaning, which is familiar to native speakers of the given language, is generally figurative and cannot be derived from the meanings of the phraseological unit’s component parts. The meanings of phraseological units are the result of the given language’s historical development.
Phraseological unit / set expression / idiom – a complex word-equivalent in which the globality of nomination reigns supreme over the formal separability of elements. It is reproduced in speech.
Classifications of Phraseological Units based on a semantic approach: 1) phraseological combinations (фразеологические сочетания) – word-groups with partially changed meaning e.g. to be good at smth., to have a bite, bosom friends (нерозлучні); 2) phraseological unities (фразеологические единства) – word-groups with completely changed meaning, the meaning of the unit does not correspond to the meanings of its constituent parts, but deducible as it is based on metaphor.Е.g. to lock the stable door after the horse is stolen (“to take precautions too late”), a fish out of water (‘a person situated uncomfortably outside its usual environment’)- "вжити заходів обережності занадто пізно"; 3) phraseological fusions (фразеологические сращения) – word-groups with completely changed meaning, their meaning cannot be deduced from the meanings of its constituent parts. Е.g. at sixes and sevens (‘in confusion or in disagreement’)- в замішання або в незгоду.
Approach. Structural Classification:
*verbal (verb equivalent)e.g. to catch at a straw хапатися за соломинку
*substantive (noun equivalent)e.g. white elephant (непотрібна річ)
*adjectival (adjective equivalent)e.g. safe and sound цілий і неушкоджений
*adverbial (adverb equivalent)e.g. in the twinkle of an eye миттю
*interjectional e.g. goodness gracious! Dear me!
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