NB: Space couldn’t be separated from time.
We differenciate: 1) time in objective reality and time in fiction;
2) time and space of the author and time and space of reader;
3) continuum of discourse and continuum of text.
Discourse continuum is special temporal interaction between text generation and text comprehension processes. The continuum of discourse is projected on the linear continuity of the information flow in the text that may be divided in time and space according to the author’s intention. So, the category of continuum is correlated with a category of discreetness.
In fiction it is impossible to find a reference point as a moment of speech. But in objective reality we could find a zero vector.
I.R. Halperin (1981) (in reference to fiction) identifies continuum as a textual grammar category, defining it as uninterrupted or undivided flow of movement in space and in time, given succession of facts and events that are developed in time and space of the text.
Textual Continuum is referred as topical coherence.
Types of continuum
Plot continuum Topic continuum
In linear succession of fiction topical connections that is connections between certain topics, can be developed logically according to the development of the events in time and space and this type is called plot continuum. Z. Turaeva calls this phenomenon – progression – uninterrupted forward movement, that is apposed to stagnation – slowed down developments of events of the text, referring to the previous facts or stepping aside from the main topic. The existence of stagnation is the indication of the 2nd type of continuum – topic continuum.
Means of stagnation are:
Introduction of the topic of the past (retrospection), background of the main characters.
Introduction of the conceptually important topic – literary digression.
Introduction of the topic of detalisation (landscape, portrait)…
Introduction of the topic of thoughts of the author…
Subcategories of continuum in discourse are time and space that are defined at the text to here the author is removed from the reader and they both from the described events.
Discursive time and space are time and space of communication, they may be discrete in spontaneous communication and opposed to textual time and space. The latter constitute chronotope (the term of M.Bahtin) of textual continuum.
Prof. Kolegaeva defines real and intertextual chronotope.
Markers of chronotope in the text are means of different levels of language, that are integrated in the lexico-sementic fields of temporality and locality.
Chronotope (acc. to O.Selivanova) – realization of the textual category of continuum, space and time of the events described in the text. In TL Ch. is understood as the category of fiction text, comprehended by the Reader as space and time of textual reality, of the imitated textual world.
In the text the Ch. is revealed by:
PROSPECTION and RETROSPECTION
Retrospection - referring back to the past.
Prospection – knowledge of further development of the events.
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