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(traditions, customs and holidays in Russia and English speaking countries)

Lesson 1


Translate the words and phrases and try to pronounce them correctly.

transcontinental adj. crossing the continents

area n. geographical region of indefinite boundary

mineral and energy resources natural resources in the form of minerals: natural resources producing energy (gas, oil etc.)

border n. a line determining the limits of an area

population n. the people who inhabit a territory or state

vary v. become different

steppes n. huge plain without trees

plains n. flat open land

forests n. land that is covered with trees

tundra n. vast plain without trees in the arctic regions

taiga n. thick forests in the northern regions

mild adj. soft

heat n. high temperature

unbearable adj. impossible to bear, to stand

moderate adj. not extreme

continental adj. typical to Europe



Read the following text aloud:


Russia is a transcontinental country lying both in Asia and Europe. With an area of over 17000000 km², Russia is the largest country in the world. It has rich mineral and energy resources. Russia has the world's ninth-largest population. Russia shares land borders with 17 countries. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia is the Soviet Union's successor state in diplomatic matters.

Natural conditions of Russia vary greatly. There are steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midlands, tundra and taiga in the north. Because of its size, Russia's climate is also varied. In the south-west the weather is usually mild and wet. Northern Asia is one of the coldest places on earth. In the south the heat is unbearable, and the climate is subtropical. But in the middle of the country the climate is moderate and continental.

Russian is the official language of the country. Russian is also the language of such great writers as Pushkin, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Chekov, Pasternak and Solzhenitsyn.

Moscow is Russia's capital and largest city (population 8.3 million). Moscow is also important as an economic and business center. Its cultural tradition is rich, and there are many museums devoted to art, literature, music, dance, history, and science, as well as hundreds of churches and cathedrals.



I. Find in the text English equivalents for the following Russian phrases.

полезные ископаемые и энергетические ресурсы, девятый по величине, граничить, развал Советского Союза, государство-преемник, быть посвященным чему-то, собор.


II. Correct the statements if you find them wrong. Use such phrase as: I agree with you. You are right.or I’m afraid I don’t agree with you. That’s not true/right.

  1. Russia is situated in Eurasia.
  2. Russia is larges country in Asia
  3. The area of Russia is about 20 million square kilometers.
  4. Russia has the world's largest population.
  5. The climate of Russia is not varied.


III. Answer the following questions using the text.

  1. Where is Russia situated?
  2. Russia is rich in mineral and energy resources, isn’t it?
  3. Is Russia the Soviet Union's successor state?
  4. Does Russia share borders with 17 or 7 countries?
  5. What is the Russian nature like?
  6. Why is Russia’s climate so varied?
  7. What is the official language of the country?
  8. What is Moscow?
  9. How big is the population of Moscow?
  10. Is Moscow only an economic and business center?


Speaking Practice

Discuss with your partner: a) the territory of Russia; b) the climate of Russia; c) the capital of Russia, using newly learnt words.

Lesson 2


I.Organise the words into two groups: describing towns/cities and describing countryside.

shopping center field woods factory museum suburbs farm night-life pollution valleys tall buildings theatre streets and avenues fresh air libraries and universities lake underground car parks statues lots of traffic


II. Match adjectives in A with opposites in B.

clean cheap
small agricultural
safe dirty
expensive big
industrial bad
good noisy
quiet dangerous

Which adjectives describe country life and life in the city?


I. Have a look at the picture of a a well-known Russian Painter V.S. Suricov and describe it using the Present Continuous Tense. Use the verbs (make snowballs, run, fight, climb the snowwall, throw snowballs, etc.)


II.Write the conversation between Steve and James in the correct order. Look at the phrases in bold.What are they used for?

- Well, I am training to be a manager.

- Yes, it’s quite interesting. How about you?

- Oh, hi Steve. How are you?

- No, my friends are helping me.

- Fine, thanks. And you? What are you doing these days?

- Oh, how interesting! Are you doing it alone?

- Really? Are you enjoying it?

- Well, I am not working at the moment, but I’m very busy. I am building a house.

James: ________________

Steve: _________________

James: ________________

Steve: _________________

James: ________________

Steve: _________________

James: ________________

Steve: _________________


III.Choose one of the photos and make up a conversation between these people.

IV.Make up a conversation, speaking about your life at the moment and using conversational phrases.

Lesson 3


Translate the words and phrases and try to pronounce them correctly.

to be situated быть расположенным

to consist состоять

surface поверхность

valley долина

influence влиять

monarchy монархия

rule править

in practice фактически, на практике

Prime Minister премьер-министр

highly developed высокоразвитый



Listen to the text “GREAT BRITAIN” and be ready to discuss it with your partner.



I. Correct the statements if you find them wrong. Use such phrase as: I agree with you. You are right.or I’m afraid I don’t agree with you. That’s not true/right.

  1. The UK consists of England, Scotland, Wales and the Northern Ireland.
  2. The surface of the British Isles does not vary much.
  3. There are some rivers but they are very long.
  4. The climate of the British Isles is mild because of the Gulf Stream.
  5. The territory of UK is not very small.
  6. People in Britain prefer to live in cities not in the country.
  7. The Prime Minister is the head of the state.
  8. London is the capital of England.
  9. The economy of the UK depends on the agriculture.
  10. British people have a lot of traditions and always keep them.



II.Answer the following questions using the information from the text.

  1. The UK is an island state, isn’t it? Where is it situated?
  2. What the parts of Great Britain?
  3. Does the surface of the country vary very much?
  4. Are there a lot of long and deep rivers in Great Britain?
  5. Why is the climate of the British Isles mild?
  6. How large is Great Britain?
  7. The UK is a monarchy. What does it mean?
  8. Who rules the country?
  9. Is the UK highly developed industrial or agricultural country?
  10. What is the capital of Great Britain?


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Читайте в этой же книге: Curriculum; tuition fee; an applicant; a fresher; department; graduate from; employers; term; scholarship; a graduate. | Listening comprehension | Special questions | The Present Simple Tense | General questions | SELF-STUDY MATERIALS FOR SECTION II | ACTIVE VOCABULARY | READING COMPREHENSION | LEXICAL EXERCISES | ACTIVE VOCABULARY |
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