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Read and translate the text, look for more words and phrases for your vocabulary

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  1. A few common expressions are enough for most telephone conversations. Practice these telephone expressions by completing the following dialogues using the words listed below.
  2. A phrase or sentence built by (tiresome) repetition of the same words or sounds.
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  4. A) Order the words to make sentences.
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  7. A. Basic phrases

My name is Irina and I hate flying. It's the worst way to travel. First of all, your plane leaves at 10 o'clock in the morning. Fine. But you have to be there at 8. You live 50 miles from the airport. So, you leave home at 6. That means getting up at 5. Crazy!

You don't want to be late, so you take a taxi. The trains are terrible, but the traffic is awful! You sit in a traffic jam for 45 minutes. Are you going to miss your plane?

No. You arrive just in time. But now you stand in a queue at the check-in for another half an hour. In front of you is a noisy family of eight and an elderly couple who can't find their passports. Then you stand in another queue at passport control for 15 minutes. You are not happy!

Finally, you go through passport control. You have exactly 8 minutes to buy something from the duty-free shop before it's time to board the plane. Then you have a long journey in front of you. The seats are very small. The person sitting next to you is very fat. He wants to tell you his life story....

That's what normally happens. But yesterday it was different. Yesterday the person sitting next to me on the plane was a tall thin man with long black hair and dark glasses. He didn't say a word to me for over an hour. When the flight attendant brought drinks, he refused. When she brought lunch, he refused again.

Suddenly, the man stood up. He took something out of his travel bag. It was a gun. People started to scream. The flight attendant came over to us.

"Can I help you, sir?" she asked.

"Take me to Havana - or I'll blow the plane up!"

The flight attendant smiled.

"Please sit down, sir. Havana's where we're going. Now, what would you like to drink?"


Answer the questions

1. What is Irina’s opinion about travelling? Does Kate like to travel?

2. What problems Irina is speaking about?

3. How much time does Irina spend on every action?

4. What was different in this trip for Irina?


Now look at these phrases from the text. Write the missing words

1. Noun + Noun

Traffic jam; _____ control; _____ attendant; _____ bag

2. Verb + Noun

_____ home; _____a taxi; _____ your plane; _____ the plane

3. Verb + Preposition + Noun

You stand ___ a queue.

You go ___ passport control.

You buy something ___ the duty-free shop.

Time Expressions

Your plane leaves ___ 10 o'clock ___ the morning.

You sit in a traffic jam ___ 45 minutes.

Common Adjectives

A tall thin ___ with long black .___ and dark ____ .

Phrasal Verbs

You leave home at 6. That means getting ____ at 5!

Suddenly, the man stood ___ .

"Take me to Havana or I'll blow the plane ___ !"

Useful Expressions

" ____ I help you?"

"Please sit ___".

"What would you ___ to drink?"

5. Can you find some more useful words and expressions? Write

Them down


Study the text for more useful lexis

First you go to the check-in desk where they weigh your luggage. Usually you are permitted 20 kilos, but if your bags weigh more, you may have to pay excess baggage (=you pay extra). The airline representative checks your ticket and gives you a boarding card for the plane with your seat number on it. Then you go through the passport control where an official checks [NOT controls] your passport, and into the departure lounge. Here, you can also buy things in the duty-free, e.g. perfume, alcohol and cigarettes. About half an hour or forty minutes before take-off, you are told to go to a gate number, e.g. 14, where you get on the plane. When you board(=to get on) the plane, you find your seat. If you have hand luggage, you can put it under your seat or in the overhead locker above your seat.

The plane thentaxis (=moves slowly) towards the runway, and when it has permission to take off, it accelerates along the runway and takes off.

During the flight you may want or need to understand certain announcements; these come from the captain (=the pilot) or from the flight attendants:

Please fasten your seat belt and put your seat in the upright position. We are now cruising (=flying comfortably) at an altitude (=height) of 10,000 metres.

May we remind passengers (=ask passenger to remember) that there is no smoking until you are inside the terminal building (=where passenger arrive and depart).

The cabin crew (=air stewards) are now coming round with landing cards (you sometimes have to fill it in when you enter certain countries).

Arrival. When the plane lands (=arrives on the ground), you have to wait for it to stop. When the doors are open, you get off the plane and walk through the terminal building and go to the baggage reclaim where you collect your luggage. You then pass through customs (green = nothing to declare; red = goods to declare; blue = European Union citizens). If you are lucky, you can then get a bus, taxi or train to the centre of town without waiting too long. You can alsohire a car (=rent a car) at most airports.


Complete the words or phrases below using the words from the box

off control free card baggage in lounge reclaim locker
1. boarding _________ 2. baggage _________ 3. excess _________ 4. passport _________ 5. hand _________ 6. duty ________ 7. overhead ________ 8. take-_________ 9. departure ________ 10. check-________

What do you call

1. The place where you go when you arrive at the airport with your luggage?

2. The card they give you with the seat number on it?

3. The money you have to pay if your luggage is very heavy?

4. The place where you sit and have a drink when you are waiting for your light to be called?

5. The bags you carry onto the plane with you?

6. The place above your head where you can put your hand luggage?

7. The part of the airport where the plane accelerates and takes off?

8. The people who look after you on the plane?

9. The part of the airport you walk through when you arrive or depart?

10. The place you collect your luggage after you land?

Think about flying (from check-in to the time you leave the airport at your destination) and answer the questions. If possible, discuss your answers with someone else

1. What is the most interesting part, and what is the most boring?

2. Where do you often have delays and why?

3. Is there any part that frightens or worries you?

4. What do you usually do during most flights?

5. Do you always eat the food they give you?

6. Is there one thing which would improve flying and make the experience more interesting?


Study the information about Present Continuous, ask your teacher if you have any questions


Present Continuous

Present Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, длящегося в настоящий момент или период. Указание на время типа now (сейчас), at the moment (в данный момент) может быть либо выражено, либо подразумеваться.

Так жеPresent Continuous употребляется для выражения личных планов в будущем времени.


+ - ?
S+am/is/are +Ving S +am/is/are +not+Ving am/is/are + S+Ving

Слова, указывающие на время Present Continuous:

at the moment –в данный момент; now – сейчас; during / while -в то время как, for – за (какое-то время).


С глаголами, которые обозначают не действие, а состояние, Present Continuous обычно не употребляется:

to feel (чувствовать); to be (быть, находиться); to live (жить); to stay (оставаться); to hear (слышать); to see (видеть); to know (знать); to remember (помнить); to think (думать); to want (хотеть); to like (любить, нравиться); to love (любить).

Example:I am reading at the moment. – Я сейчас читаю.

She is singing now. – Она сейчас поет.

Are you staying here for long? – Вы здесь на долго?

He is not doing any research now. – Он не занимается ни какими исследованиями сейчас.

Choose the correct variant

1. The plane is landing / are landing now.

2. They am standing / are standing on the passport control.

3. The cabin crew is coming / are coming round with landing cards.

4. He usually feels / is feeling unwell during the flight.

5. She is liking / likes the food on board.

6. We cruise / are cruising at an altitude of 10,000.

7. Where is Tom? – He is hiring / hires a car at the moment.

8. What is he doing at the check-in desk? – He weighs / is weighing his luggage.

Translate into Russian paying attention into the usage of Present Continuous

1. She is going to the cinema tonight. 2. We are not moving in today. 3. I am taking my exam on Wednesday. 4. They are leaving by the eight o’clock train. 5. I am seeing my friends this Saturday. 6. He is going tomorrow. 7. My father is arriving next week.


Translate into Russian

1. She is going to Moscow tonight. 2. We are not visiting relatives today. 3. I am taking my exam on Wednesday. 4. They are leaving by the eight o’clock train. 5. I am seeing my friends this Sunday. 6. He is meeting his friends tomorrow. 7. My father is arriving next week.




Study the vocabulary carefully


to enter the university – поступить в университет

to pass exams – сдать экзамены

to depend on (upon) – зависеть от

to work hard – усердно работать

to be considered worthy – быть признанным достойным

in order to – для того чтобы

to inspire – вдохновлять

to be set up – основывать

according to – согласно чему-либо

to lecture – проводить лекционное занятие

to be patronized by – находиться под покровительством

to be named after – быть названным в честь

to participate in – участвовать в

to work out – разрабатывать

to be proud of – гордиться

to undergo changes – подвергаться изменениям

to enable to – давать возможность, делать возможным

to gain skills – приобретать навыки

achievements – достижения

to glorify – восхвалять, возвеличивать, славить


Read the following words, mind the reading rules

Entry, acquire, invite, comprise, rapid, enroll, estate, edict, celebrate, establish, foundation, permission, abroad, confirm, previously, construct, recognize, offer.

Match Russian and English equivalents

1. a school-leaver 2. entrance exams 3. competitive exams 4. a school-leaving certificate 5. an applicant 6. an educational institution 7. the Age of Enlightenment 8. advanced science 9. patron saint 10. to do research in the field of…. 11. to gain professional skills 12. to take practical courses 13. a graduate   a) век Просвещения b) святой покровитель c) выпускник школы d) заниматься на семинарах e) вступительные экзамены f) выпускник вуза g) получать профессиональные навыки h) передовая наука i) учебное заведение j) абитуриент k) проводить исследования в сфере… l) экзамены на конкурсной основе m) аттестат

Read the text about the Moscow State University; find out the most important facts from the text

Moscow State University

Any school-leaver can enter any university or college he likes if the entrance exams are passed successfully. Everything depends upon the ability of the applicant to work hard for entry. At school they acquire the necessary knowledge that will fit them for the competitive exams. Each University or Faculty within a University can choose what exams the applicants should take and what results should be considered worthy for an applicant to become a student. In order to apply for a University a person should have school-leaving certificate, confirming that school-leaving exams have been passed successfully.

There are a lot of institutions of higher education in our country. The Linguistic University, previously known as Maurice Thorez Institute of Foreign Languages, Pedagogic University, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia are well known not only in Russia but also abroad. There are numerous regional educational centres in our country. Almost every city of Russia has its universities and colleges.

Moscow State University is the largest educational institution in Russia. Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) inspired the foundation of Moscow University. On the Day of St. Tatiana, Count I.I. Shuvalov officially asked the permission of Empress Elizabeth to establish the University. The University was set up by the edict of the Empress on January 12, 1755 (according to the Russian old style). Since that time St. Tatiana has become the patron saint of Moscow University, and January 25 is celebrated as University Day in Russia.

When Moscow University was founded there were three faculties - philosophy, law and medicine there. Today there are 24 faculties. From the outset the best Russian scholars lectured at Moscow University. Professors were invited from all European countries. The instruction was given in Russian and in Latin. Young people from all estates could be enrolled as students. Moscow University was always the centre of advanced Russian science. In the Age of Enlightenment the University was patronized by Catherine the Great. Following the October Revolution of 1917, the University got the state status and became known as Moscow State University. In May 1940 it was named after M.V. Lomonosov. In 1953 the modern University building on the Vorobyevy Hills was constructed.

Moscow State University teaches almost in all subject areas: Arts, Sciences, Law, Economics, Psychology, Biology, Chemistry, Engineering, etc. The Law Faculty is the centre of legal training in Russia. It is known for its high level of teaching. Professors of the Faculty do detailed research in the field of law. Moreover, they participate in the working out the Russia laws. The Lawyers, the Faculty graduates, use their knowledge in courts of law. The Faculty of Journalism is proud of its graduates who work in different fields of mass media: in editorial boards, television, radio stations and news agencies in Russia and abroad. Two-level system of economic and business education is offered at the Economics Faculty. At the Faculty students study Economics and business. They do research work and gain professional skills. The Faculty of Philosophy has always been the centre of progressive philosophical thought in Russia. The greatest Russian philosophers lectured at the Faculty. Today the best home and foreign scholars give lectures at the Faculty. Psychology was among the courses taught at first at the Faculty of Philosophy. The works of Russian psychologists are recognized in the whole world. The Biology Faculty, the largest scientific and research centre in the country, comprises the most important fields of modern Biology. Students take practical courses in Zoological Museum and Botanical Gardens. The Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics is one of the leading scientific centres in Russia. World leading professors deliver their lectures there. The Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics is popular among the applicants for entry too. Applied Mathematics and Computer Science undergo rapid changes.

The top research institutions of Moscow State Lomonosov University enable to keep research and teaching up-to-date. Here students can learn skills, which fit them for a better career. Moscow State Lomonosov University reputation stays with its graduates - and their achievements in turn glorify it.

Fill in the correct word(s) from the box below to make up a phrase. Use the words only once

to enter to pass to depend to work to acquire to be considered advanced to be named research to gain to be popular to take practical to undergo

Example: to enter the university

1. __________ changes

2. __________ the knowledge

3. __________ upon applicant’s abilities

4. __________ courses

5. __________ an exam

6. __________ hard on the project

7. __________ worthy to become a student

8. __________ among students

9. __________ science

10. __________ after M. V. Lomonosov

11. __________ in the field of modern science

12. __________ professional skills


Compose your own sentences with the following words and phrases

Example:Moscow State University is the largest educational institution in Russia.

1. a school-leaver; 2. to invite; 3. a permission; 4. advanced science; 5. to enroll; 6. a subject; 7. to do research; 8. to be proud of; 9. to offer; 10. to be popular among; 11. the leading scientific centre; 12. to undergo rapid changes.


Say on what faculties a student can

1. use their knowledge in courts of law

2. work in different fields of mass media

3. study Economics and business

4. develop philosophical ideas

5. take practical courses in Zoological Museum and Botanical Gardens

6. study the work of Artificial Intelligence

Answer the questions

1. Who inspired the foundation of Moscow State University?

2. When was Moscow University founded?

3. Tatiana is a patron saint of MSU, isn’t she?

4. Were there three or five faculties at the beginning of MSU?

5. What were the languages of the lectures?

6. When was the university patronized by Catherine the Great?

7. Name the modern faculties of MSU. What are they famous for?

8. Was it difficult for you to choose your University and profession?

9. What helped you to make your choice?

10. Do you think that school-leavers should be helped to choose their future profession? What should be done to help teenagers to find their way in life?

Steve Jobs

Study the vocabulary carefully


to launch – запускать, выпускать на рынок товар

to remain – оставаться

to be adopted – быть усыновленным

boldly – отважно, дерзко

to be underway – быть в процессе разработки

to force – вынуждать

to improve – улучшать

to be withdrawn – быть отозванным (о товаре)

to unveil – торжественно представлять, открывать

to estimate – оценивать

to lack – испытывать недостаток, не иметь

to purchase – покупать, приобретать

box office – театральная касса (здесь – сборы)

CEO – Chief Executive Officer – генеральный директор

visionary – прорицатель, провидец

Match the columns

1. substance 2. silicon 3. gadgetry 4. workshop 5. occasion 6. sales 7. whiz 8. internship 9. entirely 10. competitor A. кремний B. знаток, дока C. вещество D. продажи E. мастерская F. случай G. совершенно, полностью H. соперник I. практика, стажировка J. технические приспособления


Read the text about Steve Jobs and find out the most important facts from the text

Advances in electronics

Steve Jobs launched one of the largest industries of the past decades while still in his early twenties. He remains one of the most inventive and energetic minds in American technology.

Steven Jobs was born on February 24, 1955, in San Francisco, California, and was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs.

In 1961 the family moved to California. This area was becoming a center for electronics. Electronics form the basic elements of devices such as radios, televisions, stereos, and computers. At that time people started to refer to the area as "Silicon Valley." This is because a substance called silicon is used in the manufacturing of electronic parts.

As a child, Jobs preferred doing things by himself. He showed an early interest in electronics and gadgetry. He spent a lot of time working in the garage workshop of a neighbor who worked at Hewlett-Packard, an electronics manufacturer.

Jobs also enrolled in the Hewlett-Packard Explorer Club. There he saw

engineers demonstrate new products, and he saw his first computer at the age of twelve. He was very impressed, and knew right away that he wanted to work with computers.

While in high school, Jobs attended lectures at the Hewlett-Packard plant. On one occasion he boldly asked William Hewlett (1931–2001), the president, for some parts he needed to complete a class project. Hewlett was so impressed he gave Jobs the parts, and offered him a summer internship at Hewlett-Packard.

After graduating from high school in 1972, Jobs attended Reed College in Portland, Oregon, for two years. In 1975 Jobs joined a group known as the Homebrew Computer Club. One member, a technical whiz named Steve Wozniak (1950–), was trying to build a small computer. Jobs became fascinated with the marketing potential of such a computer. In 1976 he and Wozniak formed their own company. They called it Apple Computer Company, in memory of a happy summer Jobs had spent picking apples. They raised $1,300 in startup money by selling Jobs's microbus and Wozniak's calculator. At first they sold circuit boards (the boards that hold the internal components of a computer) while they worked on the computer prototype (sample).

Jobs had realized there was a huge gap in the computer market. At that time almost all computers were mainframes. They were so large that one could fill a room, and so costly that individuals could not afford to buy them. Advances in electronics, however, meant that computer components were getting smaller and the power of the computer was increasing.

Jobs and Wozniak redesigned their computer, with the idea of selling it to individual users. The Apple II went to market in 1977, with impressive first year sales of $2.7 million. The company's sales grew to $200 million within three years. This was one of the most phenomenal cases of corporate growth in U.S. history. Jobs and Wozniak had opened an entirely new market – personal computers. Personal computers began an entirely new way of processing information.

By 1980 the personal computer era was well underway. Apple was continually forced to improve its products to remain ahead, as more competitors entered the marketplace. Apple introduced the Apple III, but the new model suffered technical and marketing problems. It was withdrawn from the market, and was later reworked and reintroduced.

In 1984 Apple introduced a revolutionary new model, the Macintosh. The on-screen display had small pictures called icons. To use the computer, the user pointed at an icon and clicked a button using a new device called a mouse. This process made the Macintosh very easy to use. The Macintosh did not sell well to businesses, however. It lacked features other personal computers had, such as a corresponding high quality printer. The failure of the Macintosh signaled the beginning of Jobs's downfall at Apple. Jobs resigned in 1985 from the company he had helped found, though he retained his title as chairman of its board of directors.

Jobs soon hired some of his former employees to begin a new computer company called NeXT. Late in 1988 the NeXT computer was introduced at a large gala event in San Francisco, aimed at the educational market. Initial reactions were generally good. The product was very user-friendly, and had a fast processing speed, excellent graphics displays, and an outstanding sound system. Despite the warm reception, however, the NeXT machine never caught on. It was too costly, had a black-and-white screen, and could not be linked to other computers or run common software.

NeXT was not, however, the end of Steve Jobs. In 1986 Jobs purchased a small company called Pixar from filmmaker George Lucas (1944–). Pixar specialized in computer animation. Nine years later Pixar released Toy Story, a huge box office hit. Pixar later went on to make Toy Story 2 and A Bug's Life, which Disney distributed, and Monsters, Inc. All these films have been extremely successful. Monsters, Inc. had the largest opening weekend ticket sales of any animated film in history.

In December of 1996 Apple purchased NeXT Software for over $400 million. Jobs returned to Apple as a part-time consultant to the chief executive officer (CEO). The following year, in a surprising event, Apple entered into a partnership with its competitor Microsoft. The two companies, according to the New York Times, "agreed to cooperate on several sales and technology fronts." Over the next six years Apple introduced several new products and marketing strategies.

In November 1997 Jobs announced Apple would sell computers directly to users over the Internet and by telephone. The Apple Store became a runaway success. Within a week it was the third-largest e-commerce site on the Internet. In September of 1997 Jobs was named CEO of Apple.

He was instrumental in launching the age of the personal computer. Steve Jobs is truly a computer industry visionary.


Answer the questions

1. When and where was Steve Jobs born?

2. When and where did he see his first computer?

3. How much money did Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak have to start up their company?

4. When did the first personal computer go to the market?

5. Who became the main competitor of Apple in 1983?

6. Why did Steve Jobs leave Apple?

7. What was the reason of NeXT failure?

8. What happened to NeXT?

9. Who was the owner of Pixar before Steve Jobs?

10. What are the most famous products of Pixar?

11. When did Steve Jobs return to Apple?

12. What is the position of Steve Jobs now?

Linus Torvalds

Study the vocabulary carefully


accomplished programmer – состоявшийся программист

accustomed – привыкший, приученный

from scratch – с нуля, с начала

embedded systems – внедренные системы

to get big boost – получить повышение, «оказаться на волне», стать успешным

blessing support – благословенная поддержка

a global consortium – глобальное объединение

Read the text about Linus Torvalds and find out the most important facts from the text

The right person at the right time

Linus Torvalds is the world's most famous computer programmer. He is the founder and coordinator of Linux, the Unix-like operating system that is beginning to revolutionize the computer industry.

Linus Benedict Torvalds was born on December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, the capital and largest city in Finland. He was named after Linus Pauling, the famous physical chemist and Nobel Prize winner.

Torvalds had a fairly happy childhood despite the fact that his parents were divorced when he was very young. He lived with his mother and also with his grandparents. His emphasis was placed on reading from an early age.

It was his grandfather, Leo Toerngvist, a professor of statistics at the University of Helsinki, who had the greatest influence on the young Linus. In the mid-1970s, Toerngvist bought one of the first personal computers, a Commodore Vic 20. Torvalds soon became bored with the few programs that were available for it, and he thus began to create new ones, first using the BASIC programming language and then using the much more difficult but also more powerful language.

Programming and mathematics became Torvalds' passions.

In 1987 Torvalds used his savings to buy his first computer, a Sinclair QL. This was one of the world's first 32-bit computers for home use. With its Motorola 68008 processor (the part of the computer that performs logic operations and also referred to as a central processing unit or CPU) running at 7.5MHz (megahertz) and 128KB (kilobytes) of RAM (random access memory), this was a big step up from his grandfather's Commodore Vic 20. However, he soon became unhappy with it because of it could not be reprogrammed due to the operating system residing in ROM (read-only memory).

In 1988 Torvalds followed in the footsteps of his parents and enrolled in the University of Helsinki, the premier institution of higher education in Finland. By that time he was already an accomplished programmer, and, naturally, he majored in computer science. In 1990 he took his first class in the C programming language, the language that he would soon use to write the Linux kernel (i.e., the core of the operating system).

In early 1991 he purchased an IBM-compatible personal computer with a 33MHz Intel 386 processor and a huge 4MB of memory. This processor greatly appealed to him because it represented a tremendous improvement over earlier Intel chips. As intrigued as he was with the hardware, however, Torvalds was disappointed with the MS-DOS operating system that came with it. That operating system had not advanced sufficiently to even begin to take advantage of the vastly improved capabilities of the 386 chip, and he thus strongly preferred the much more powerful and stable UNIX operating system that he had become accustomed to using on the university's computers.

Consequently, Torvalds attempted to obtain a version of UNIX for his

new computer. Fortunately (for the world), he could not find even a basic system for less than US$5,000. He also considered MINIX, a small clone of UNIX that was created by operating systems expert Andrew Tanenbaum in the Netherlands to teach UNIX to university students. However, although much more powerful than MS-DOS and designed to run on Intel x86 processors, MINIX still had some serious disadvantages. They included the facts that not all of the source code was made public, it lacked some of the features and performance of UNIX and there was a not-insignificant (although cheaper than for many other operating systems) licensing fee.

Torvalds thus decided to create a new operating system from scratch that was based on both MINIX and UNIX.

Torvalds originally gave his new operating system the working name Linux (from Linus' MINIX).

Linux got big boost when competitors of Microsoft began taking it seriously. Oracle, Intel, Netscape, Corel and others announced plans to support Linux as an inexpensive alternative to Microsoft Windows. Major corporations soon realized the potential of Linux, and they quickly adopted it for their Internet servers and networks.

Perhaps the biggest force for Linux's adoption in the corporate world has been IBM's official blessing and massive support. This included a 2001 announcement of a commitment of a billion dollars for Linux research, development and promotion.

Among the advantages of using Linux in embedded systems are portability (i.e., ability to run on almost any type of processor), flexibility (i.e., ease of configuring), low cost (i.e., no licensing fees) and the availability of efficient and low cost development tools.

But Torvalds' success was also due to the fact that he was the right person at the right time.

Torvalds is now working on the Linux kernel full-time for Open Source

Development Lab (OSDL), which is based in Beaverton, Oregon. Founded in 2000 and supported by a global consortium of computer companies, including IBM, OSDL describes its mission as "becoming the recognized center of gravity for Linux and the central body dedicated to accelerating the use of Linux for enterprise computing."


Say if these sentences are true of false

1. Linus Torvalds is the most famous computer programmer.

2. He is the founder and coordinator of Linux.

3. Torvalds had a hardly happy childhood.

4. His emphasis was placed on sport from an early age.

5. His father had the greatest influence on the young Linus.

6. Torvalds began to create new programs, first using the BASIC programming language and then using the much more difficult but also more powerful language.

7. Torvalds used his savings to buy his first computer which was one of the world's first 32-bit computers for home use in 1987.

8. At the University of Helsinki he was already an accomplished programmer.

9. In 1991 Torvalds purchased an IBM-compatible personal computer which appealed to him because it represented a tremendous improvement over earlier Intel chips.

10. Torvalds attempted to obtain a version of UNIX for his new computer.

11. Torvalds created a new operating system from scratch that was based on both MINIX and UNIX and gave his new operating system the working name Linux.

12. Minor corporations realized the potential of Linux, and they adopted it for their Internet servers and networks.


Answer the questions

1. What are the advantages of using Linux in embedded systems?

2. Why was Linus Torvalds a successful person?

3. What is Linus Torvalds working on today?

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Читайте в этой же книге: Fill in the words to complete the sentences | Complete the diagram below with words from the text, add your own | Match these words with the letters on the picture |
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Complete the sentences in the same way| In the Sisters Grimm series

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