Ex. 5. Give Russian equivalents of the following word combinations and reproduce the sentences in which they are used in the text:
the beginnings of agriculture
to master smth.
to enjoy some weight
to take over an empire
to be impressed on wet clay
to be impressed with stylus
eclipse of a power
a byword for luxury and power
to be well-positioned for trade
Ex. 6. Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations and reproduce sentences in which they are used in the text.:
торговля редкими товарами
начало пятого века
Ex. 7. Match the notions and their definitions:
1. the Near East
2. the Neolithic revolution
6. a king
a) the all-purpose script of the Near East, adapted to the writing of many different languages
b) the region between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers
c) the region stretching from the Persian Gulf to Palestine and Anatolia
d) local governors in Persia under Darius
e) the byword for luxury and power among the Greeks
g) the period when the beginnings of agriculture, the manufacture of pottery and the first steps towards urbanization appeared and were accompanied by trade in rare goods
Ex. 8. Paraphrase the italicized parts, using the expressions from the text and Ex. 5,6:
1. By 3500 our ancestors had become good at mining, smelting and working of metals.
2. The first true citizens lived in Mesopotamia.
3. The Hittites established an empire that stretched as far as Palestine governed by Egypt.
4. At the beginning of the first millennium ВС the Assyrians dominated the Near East for three centuries.
5. Mesopotamian societies could read and write.
6. Syria and Palestine, located well enough for trade, were of some importance in military and economic field.
7. Cuneiform became the script used in every sphere.
8. The splendor and wealth of their rule made the name of the king of Persia a synonym of luxury and power among the Greeks.
9. The Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians were all successful rivals in the years up to 1500 ВС.
Ex. 9. Complete the sentences:
1. The ancient Near East is the region ...
2. Sumerian cities of the third millennium ВС ...
3. Writing started in ...
4. The first signs of the 'Neolithic revolution' were ...
5. The Hittites Empire enjoyed some ...
6. The first true city-dwellers«appeared in ...
7. Control of Mesopotamia was ...
8. Syllabic symbols made it possible ...
9. The Persian king Cyrus captured ...
10. Written material on clay and stones includes...
11. Alexander the Great crossed into Asia ...
12. The Sasanians were the successors of...
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