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IV. VOCABULARY SKILLS. Ex. 5. Give Russian equivalents of the following word combinations and reproduce the sentences in which they are used in the text:

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  5. I. Active Vocabulary.
  6. III. Translate from Russian into English, using the vocabulary from the text.

Ex. 5. Give Russian equivalents of the following word combinations and reproduce the sentences in which they are used in the text:

the beginnings of agriculture

craft skills

to master smth.


theocratic states

ox-drawn chariots

to enjoy some weight

to take over an empire

straightforward symbols

to be impressed on wet clay

to be impressed with stylus

all-purpose script

eclipse of a power

a byword for luxury and power

to be well-positioned for trade

Egyptian-controlled Palestine


Ex. 6. Give English equivalents of the following words and word combinations and re­produce sentences in which they are used in the text.:

неолитическая революция

торговля редкими товарами




города- государства

клинописные знаки

писать предложениями

начало пятого века



Ex. 7. Match the notions and their definitions:


1. the Near East


2. the Neolithic revolution


3. Mesopotamia


4. cuneiform


5. satraps


6. a king


a) the all-purpose script of the Near East, adapted to the writing of many different languages

b) the region between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers

c) the region stretching from the Persian Gulf to Palestine and Anatolia

d) local governors in Persia under Darius

e) the byword for luxury and power among the Greeks

f) wedge-writing

g) the period when the beginnings of ag­riculture, the manufacture of pottery and the first steps towards urbanization appeared and were accompanied by trade in rare goods


Ex. 8. Paraphrase the italicized parts, using the expressions from the text and Ex. 5,6:

1. By 3500 our ancestors had become good at mining, smelting and work­ing of metals.

2. The first true citizens lived in Mesopotamia.

3. The Hittites established an empire that stretched as far as Palestine governed by Egypt.

4. At the beginning of the first millennium ВС the Assyrians dominated the Near East for three centuries.

5. Mesopotamian societies could read and write.

6. Syria and Palestine, located well enough for trade, were of some impor­tance in military and economic field.

7. Cuneiform became the script used in every sphere.

8. The splendor and wealth of their rule made the name of the king of Persia a synonym of luxury and power among the Greeks.

9. The Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians were all successful rivals in the years up to 1500 ВС.


Ex. 9. Complete the sentences:

1. The ancient Near East is the region ...

2. Sumerian cities of the third millennium ВС ...

3. Writing started in ...

4. The first signs of the 'Neolithic revolution' were ...

5. The Hittites Empire enjoyed some ...

6. The first true city-dwellers«appeared in ...

7. Control of Mesopotamia was ...

8. Syllabic symbols made it possible ...

9. The Persian king Cyrus captured ...

10. Written material on clay and stones includes...

11. Alexander the Great crossed into Asia ...

12. The Sasanians were the successors of...


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Читайте в этой же книге: Release, let go | ANCIENT EGYPT | Mumification | IV. VOCABULARY SKILLS | TWO GREAT CITIES OF THE INDUS VALLEY | V. SPEAKING SKILLS | Words to remember |
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