penetration – проникновение, проницательность
Give English equivalents:
Неотъемлемая часть, основываться на чем-либо, требование к чему-либо, отличаться от кого-то, от имени кого-либо, достичь цели, иметь мало общего с чем-либо, удовлетворить любые интересы, максимальное понимание
2. Give synonyms:
Basic, solid, outstanding, broad, range, persuasive, to select, purpose
3. Give antonyms:
Effective, accurately, objective, to include, to benefit, suburban, , maximum, constantly
4. Answer the following questions:
1. What process includes research, planning, communication and evaluation?
2. What is effective writing based on?
3. Where is much of public relations writing directed to?
4. What other channels of communication besides the news media does the public relations writer use?
5. What audiences may the public relations writer work for?
6. What are the traditional mass media?
7. What are the channels for the message of the public relations writer?
8. Can they be combined?
5. Explain the following:
Effective public relations writing is based on carefully defining the audience and its composition so that you can tailor your information to its interests and concerns.
Before beginning any writing assignment , take time to ask yourself some key questions.
- What is the desired communication outcome? In other words, what do we want our audience to do or not to do?
- Who is our target audience?
- What are our target audience’s needs, concerns and interests?
- What is our message?
- What communication channel is the most effective?
- Who is our most believable spokesperson?
Answering these questions goes a long way towards helping you determine the content and structure of your message. You should also keep in mind the following techniques and concepts of effective writing: outlining, word length, word choice.
Before you start writing anything, make an outline of what you are going to include in your message. It may be brief or comprehensive. You will probably modify it as you gather information, but an outline will help you to keep your thinking in order. Usually an outline has major topics, and within each major topic there are minor topics.
Sentences should be clear and concise. Longer sentences may often be necessary, but a good test is to go back over the material and see how many sentences can be cut down. Mixing long and short sentences improves the rhythm. The typical paragraph should normally include only one idea. As a general practice, it ought to be no longer than six or eight lines. If necessary, a longer sentence may be used, but brevity is preferable.
Word length is a good gauge of readability, and every writer should aim to be read. In readable writing most words are short. A message containing an average of 1,5 syllables per word is considered to be very readable. Don’t try to show off your knowledge by using long, complicated words.
Writers who are college-educated often forget that words common to their vocabulary are not readily understood by large segments of the general public. If your target audience is the general public, remember that a short Anglo-Saxon word is more understandable that a longer one derived from French, Greek or Latin. The words on the left are better than the words on the right:
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