(a) That means:
· the rules of the WTO system are agreements resulting from negotiations among member governments,
· the rules are ratified by members’ parliaments, and
· decisions taken in the WTO are virtually all made by consensus among all members.
(b) One of the principles of the WTO system is for countries to lower their trade barriers and to allow trade to flow more freely. But just how low those barriers should go is something member countries bargain with each other. Their negotiating positions depend on what they want to obtain from other members in return.
(c) Underlying the WTO’s trading system is the fact that freer trade supports development. In that sense, commerce and development are good for each other.
(d) The WTO includes among its objectives optimal use of the world’s resources, sustainable development and environmental protection.
(e) Freer-flowing and more stable trade boosts economic growth. It has the potential to create jobs and it can help to reduce poverty.
(f) In recent years, developing countries have become considerably more active in WTO negotiations, submittingan unprecedented number of proposals.
(g) The private sector, non-governmental organizations and other lobbyinggroups do not participate in WTO activities except in special events such as seminars and symposiums.
(h) Countries willingly want to join the WTO. By joining the WTO, even a small country automatically enjoys the benefits that all WTO members grantto each other.
(i) Decisions in the WTO are generally by consensus. In principle, that’s even more democratic than majority rule because no decision is taken until everyone agrees. Quite often reluctant countries are persuaded by being offered something in return.
Ex. 2. Now read the article carefully. Are the following statements true or false? Write T for true and F for false. Correct the mistakes in the false sentences:
1) Decisions taken in the WTO are made by majority rule.
2) The member countries have to lower trade barriers without getting anything in return.
3) Sustainable development is one of the objectives of the WTO.
4) Free trade boosts economic growth.
5) Developing countries can’t submit proposals in the WTO.
6) Small countries enjoy fewer benefits than other WTO members.
7) The consensus rule means every country has a voice, and every country has to be convinced before it joins a consensus.
Ex. 3. Answer these questions about the article:
1) What do the WTO agreements result from?
2) Who are the WTO rules ratified by?
3) What do member countries bargain with each other over?
4) According to the article, what is the relation between free trade and development?
5) Do lobbyinggroups participate in WTO activities?
6) Are small countries forced into joining the WTO?
7) Why is the consensus rule considered to be more democratic than majority rule?
8) What is the way to persuade reluctant countries?
Ex. 4. Complete the sentences from memory:
1) The rules are _______ by members’ parliaments.
2) Decisions taken in the WTO are virtually all made __ _______ among all members.
3) One of the principles of the WTO system is for countries to _____ their trade _____ and to allow trade to _____ more freely.
4) Their negotiating positions depend on what they want to ______ from other members in ______ .
5) The WTO includes among its ______ optimal use of the world’s resources, ______ development and _______ protection.
6) Freer-flowing and more stable trade ______economic ______.
7) In recent years, developing countries have become considerably more active in WTO _______ .
8) By ______ the WTO, even a small country automatically enjoys the ______ that all WTO members ______ to each other.
Ex. 5. Russia’s bid to join the WTO, filed in 1993, is known to have been the longest accession saga in the history of the world trade body. Get ready to discuss in class the risks and rewards of Russia in the WTO.
Ex. 6. Match words from each column to make common word combinations:
|1) to boost||a) a proposal|
|2) majority||b) trade barriers|
|3) to lower||c) sector|
|4) private||d) rule|
|5) to submit||e) economic growth|
Ex. 7. Find words / word combinations in the article with the meanings below:
1) to give someone something or allow them to have something that they have asked for
2) to get something that you want, especially through your own effort, skill, or work
3) to present for the approval, consideration, or decision of others
4) to try to influence the actions of public officials, especially legislators
5) something that is advantageous or good; an advantage
6) any regulation or policy that restricts international trade, especially tariffs, quotas, etc
7) to be at the basis of; form the foundation of
8) mutual discussions and arrangements of the terms of a transaction or agreement
Ex. 8. Complete each sentence with an appropriate word from the article. The first letter is given to help you:
1) The draft decision was adopted by (c_______).
2) They are (b_______) over the level of wages.
3) How are we going to (b_______)sales performance next year?
4) Many factors (u_______) my decision.
5) One of your first business (o_______) should be to get your own office.
6) All applications must be (s_______) by Monday.
7) A licence to sell alcohol was (g_______) to the club.
8) The group is (l_______) for a reduction in defence spending.
Ex. 9. Match the verbs below to the correct prepositions:
1) to result a) from b) of c) to
2) to depend a) from b) of c) on
3) to deal a) at b) on c) with
4) to contribute a) in b) to c) about
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