A. Linear Communication Model(First Model, Action Model): Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver:information flows in one direction: Sender transmits a message to the receiver through a channel with noise. Sender codes the message, receiver decodes it.
Noise in the channel comes in four varieties (Michael’s Sound Bite 1-5):(a) physical noise, (b) physiological noise(wants of the body); (c) psychological noise(intense emotions that you feel); and (d) semantic noise(when you don’t understand words. You need to deal with the noises to help your communication process.
B. Interactive Model(Second Model, Interaction Model): Wilbur Schramm:Senders and receivers exchange information and give each otherfeedforward(explaining what is going to happen) and feedback(how they understood the message).
Feedback involves verbal and nonverbal messages that show their reaction to communication: eye contact, utterances, gestures, that signal approval and disapproval.
The two parties create their own fields of experience: beliefs, attitudes, values, and experiences people bring to the event.
C. Transactional Model(Third Model): Carl Rogers:Communication is fundamentally multidirectional; each participant equally influences communication and they collaborate in creating meaning. People share parts of their identities and take into accounts their interlocutors’ character, preferences, expectations and goals.
D. Communication Models as Lenses (Michael’s Sound Bite 1-6).
- Basically ANY situation can be considered as action, interaction or transaction; any situation can be acted upon in THREE forms;
- When we view the situation as ACTION, we only consider actions and steps of one of the participants; when we view it as INTERACTION we consider the contribution of both parties based on feedback; when we view it as TRANSACTION we consider each person’s character, context, goals and needs;
- When we act according to ACTION model, we send out messages without regard to receiver; when we act according to INTERACTION model, we take into account the feedback; when we act according to the TRANSACTION model, we take into account the interlocutor’s character, context, goals and needs.
- It’s not necessarily a good idea to ALWAYS use the transaction model. In some instances action and interaction will suffice and can even be recommended.
E. Relationship as Separate Entity(Michael’s Sound Bite 1-7).
- Aubrey Fisher:when two people enter a relationship, they form an entity, which is separate from both people. If one person leaves a relationship, he or she leaves a void.
- The longer the relationship progresses, the more complex and interdependent the relationship becomes;
- Most of these communication alliances are dyads; trios are rare and often split into two independent dyads.
- In any action, interaction or transaction event we must consider the other personin the communication event, and all other potential dyads in this relationship.
DISCUSSION STARTER 2: Think about a recent encounter that you consider interpersonal. Was it linear, interactive, or transactional? Do you think one communication process is more “interpersonal” than the others, or are they all equally interpersonal? Why?
IV. What is Interpersonal Communication?
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