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Aviation Communication

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Aviation

International Air Traffic Control

Robert O. Buck

MACMILLAN PUBLISHING COMPANY

New York

COLLIER MACMILLAN INTERNATIONAL

New York

COLLIER MACMILLAN PUBLISHERS

London

Photography Credits:Archive Pictures: © Jean C. Pigozzi; © AT&T; Black Star: © Charles Bonnay, Shelly Katz, James Edward Vaughan; © Boeing; © Robert O. Buck; © Cessna; © Federal Aviation Administration, United States Department of Transportation; © Gates Learjet Corporation; © General Electric; Monkmeyer Photo Press Service: © Rogers; Photo Researchers, Inc.: © Gerry Cranham, Robert Peron; © David Planck; Stock Boston: © Jeff Albertson, Fredrik D. Bodin, Arthur Grace, Ellis Herwig, Frank Siteman MCMLXXXI; Leo de Wys: © David Burnett, Dirch Halstead, Everett C. Johnson.

 

Cover DesignRudy Michaels

Cover Photo© Herman Kokajan from Black Star

 

Copyright © 1984 MACMILLAN PUBLISHING COMPANY A Division of Macmillan, Inc.

Philippines Copyright ©

 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher.

 

Macmillan Publishing Company

866 Third Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10022

Collier Macmillan Canada, Inc.

 

Printed in the United States of America

 

ISBN 0-02-973710-9 98765432

 

Aviation

International Air Traffic Control

Robert O. Buck

 

 

Preface

This book is one of Macmillan's Career English series. Career English is intended for students who have some proficiency in English as well as a working knowledge of their own professional fields. The books are designed to teach the special terminology students need in order to communicate in English within their career areas.

Students will find the Career English books clear, lively, practical, and easy to use. Each chapter covers one specific topic and begins with a dialogue between an expert in the field and a student or a trainee. In the course of the dialogue, the key terms pertaining to the chapter topic are introduced in a realistic context. The dialogue is followed by a terminology practice in which each key term is defined and used in three sample sentences. At the end of each chapter, students will find a simple check-up exercise to determine whether or not they have mas­tered the terms introduced in the dialogue. An answer key to the check-ups is provided for self-correction. A glossary at the end of each book lists all the terms in the text with the numbers of the chapters in which they appear. In addition a cassette recording of the dialogues is available for each book. Use of the cassette is optional but highly recommended.

 

The books in the Career English series are designed to be equally useful for students studying in a classroom or independently.

To the student:If you are studying independently, the following suggestions will help you to use this book to its best advantage:

1. Read the dialogue from beginning to end.

2. Read the terminology practice.

3. If you have the tape, listen to it. Listen for the words in the terminology practice, paying special attention to pronunciation and intonation.

4. Reread the dialogue aloud. (If you have the tape, play it again to check your pronunciation.)

5. Do the end-of-chapter check-up to be sure you have mastered the terms introduced in the chapter. Check your answers with the answer key at the back of the book. If you have made an error in the check-up, use the terminology practice to look up the words you have not mastered. Find the terms in the dialogue, and reread the dialogue. Correct your errors.

6. Now you are ready to go on to the next chapter.

To the teacher:The following suggestions will help you to use this book to its best advantage in your classroom:

1. Ask students to read the dialogue silently.

2. Have them read the terminology practice to themselves.

3. If you have the tape, play it for the class. Suggest that students follow along in their books, listening carefully for the words in the terminology practice and paying careful attention to pronunciation and intonation.

4. Read each word in the terminology practice aloud, asking students to repeat after you. Check for pronunciation. Have students take turns reading the sample sentences aloud.

5. Ask two students to read the dialogue aloud, taking the parts of the characters in the dialogue. (You may wish to have several pairs of students read each dialogue.) As the dialogue is being read, help the students with their pronunciation and intonation.

6. Ask students to do the end-of-chapter check-up to be sure they have mastered the vocabulary introduced in the chapter. If students have their own books, they may write their answers directly in the book. If the books will be used by others, ask students to write their answers on separate paper.



7. Students can check their answers with the answer key at the back of the book. If they have made any errors, suggest they look up the terms in the terminology practice, reread the definitions and sample sentences, and reread the dialogue. Then have them correct their check-ups.

 

 

CONTENTS

Lesson   Page
Aviation Communication………………………………………..…………. The Flight Plan…………………………………………………..…………. Clearance Delivery……………………………………………….………... Ground Control…………………………………………………….…......... The Control Tower……………………………………………….………... Departure and Approach Control………………………………….……… En-Route ATC……………………………………………….……………... Precision Approaches………………………………………….………….. Non precision Approaches…………………………………….…………… Local Communications During VFR Flights……………….…………............ En-Route Communications During VFR Flights……………………...……... Key to Check-Ups.…………….……………………………...…......... Appendix…………………………….……………………………………. Glossary…………………………………………………………………….

 

 

LESSON 1

Aviation Communication

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A. Dialogue

 

Instructor: Student: Instructor: Student: Instructor: Student: Instructor: Student: Instructor: Student: Instructor: Let's look at how the air traffic control (ATC) system operates. Is this information applicable to countries other than the United States? Yes. You'll find that ATC operates in a similar manner throughout the world. As you must realize, standard communication prevents confusion. In this business a wrong altitude or heading could be disastrous. Is there an organization responsible for maintaining standards for communication? Well, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was formed in 1944 in order to establish a standard international system of communication. How many countries does the ICAO represent? Today the ICAO represents approximately 196 countries. It standardizes layout and organization of airports, aircraft certification and airworthiness guidelines, and the types of international personnel at airports. What kind of personnel do you mean? Personnel in areas such as customs, health, and immigration. Are there standards for pronunciation of numbers and letters? Yes, there are. Here are some exercises that will give you practice with numbers and letters. If you learn correctly from the beginning, you'll develop excellent communication skills.

 

 

B. Reading

 

Numbers are used in almost every radio call. Except for whole hundreds and thousands, pronounce each digit of a number separately. The number ten, for example, is pronounced one zero, rather than ten. The number 11,000 is pronounced one one thousand, not eleven thousand.

When a number has a decimal point in it, say the word decimal at the proper place. The number 121.1, for example, is pronounced one two one decimal one. Decimal is the ICAO standard. However, in the United States the word point is sometimes used.

To avoid misunderstandings, the pronunciation of some digits differs from that used in normal conversation. There could be confusion on the radio between the numbers five and nine; these are pronounced fife and niner. The numeral 0 is pronounced zero, the numeral three is tree, and the word thousand is tousand. All other numbers are pronounced in the usual fashion.

 

 

C. Number Practice

 

Read the following numbers aloud. Be sure to pronounce them as if you are making a radio call.

2 (two) 3 (tree) 7 (seven) 9 (niner) 5 (fife) 6 (six) 4 (four) 8 (eight) 8,000 12,000 118.1 109.9 111.1 (zero) (one two one) (six fife zero) (eight tousand) (one two tousand) (one one eight decimal one) (one zero niner decimal niner) (one one one decimal one)
14,500 (one four tousand fife hundred or one four fife zero zero)

 

***

114.7 109.5 115.9 1,187 14,000 22,000

 

 

D. Letters

 

Letters pronounced on the radio can be difficult to understand due to the similarity of the sound of many letters. To avoid confusion, the ICAO has adopted a system of words, one representing each letter of the alphabet. All letters should be pronounced in this manner. Abbreviations, such as VOR, ILS, and VFR, are the only exception.

 

Letter Phonetic Alphabet
A Alfa
B Bravo
C Charlie
D Delta
E Echo
F Foxtrot
G Golf
H Hotel
I India
J Juliett
K Kilo
L Lima
M Mike
N November
O Oscar
P Papa
Q Quebec
R Romeo
S Sierra
T Tango
U Uniform
V Victor
W Whiskey
X X-ray
Y Yankee
Z Zulu

 

 

E. Letter Practice

 

Read the following letters aloud. Be sure to pronounce them as if you are making a radio call.

M P O S F I J U H A T Z N D R X K L G Q Y E V B W C

 

 

F. Number and Letter Practice

Read the following numbers and letters aloud. Be sure to pronounce them as if you are making a radio call.

108.0 B229 N637 J3VDF AZ44DE 24,000 CGMH UN3K X5WY LIQ PORS T22A ORK N102FA N176PM 29.92 118.1 123.0 QRM N3559VK

 

G. Terminology Practice

 

Air Traffic Control (ATC): a service provided to promote a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic

Is it difficult for ATC to communicate with a large number of aircraft?

ATC is responsible for the safety of aircraft.

It is ATC's responsibility to provide safe air traffic separation.

altitude:the elevation above sea level

The aircraft is flying at an altitude of 4,000 feet.

What's our present altitude?

The minimum altitude for this flight is 7,500 feet.

heading: the horizontal direction in which an aircraft is pointed, expressed in angular distance from a reference point

Turn left to a heading of 150 degrees.

Will this heading take us south of the airport?

Fly this heading until the airport is in sight.

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO):an international organization that regulates aviation

Over 190 countries belong to the ICAO.

Do all nations belong to the ICAO?

International standards regulating air navigation are recommended by the ICAO.

 

 

LESSON 2

 


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