Q: What is another word for integrated circuit?
A: The circuit, often called a chip ...
Q: What benefits do smaller, denser chips offer?
A: The smaller, denser chips can also provide speed benefits, because in high-speed devices, the length of time it takes a signal to travel a given distance can become a factor.
Q: How many transistors are used in modern integrated circuits?
A: … one that uses very-large-scale integration (VLSI) contains more than 1,000 transistors. All ICs now employ VLSI, ...
Q: What are the two integrated circuit classifications?
A: Bipolar integrated circuits contain bipolar junction transistors as their principle elements. Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits contain MOS transistors as their principle elements.
Q: How are integrated circuits categorized?
A: Integrated circuits are also categorized according to the number of transistors or other active circuit devices they contain ...
Q: Are integrated circuits analog or digital?
A: Some integrated circuits are analog devices; an operational amplifier is an example. Other ICs, such as the microprocessors used in computers are digital devices. Some hybrid integrated circuits contain both analog and digital circuitry; a bilateral switch, which switches analog signals by means of a digital control signal is an example of a hybrid IC. Integrated circuit functions are virtually limitless.
Q: Are there any advantages in the size of integrated circuits?
A: Some microprocessors, for example, contain more than one billion transistors on their chips. The smaller, denser chips can also provide speed benefits, because in high-speed devices, the length of time it takes a signal to travel a given distance can become a factor.
22. Summarize the text “Integrated Circuits” in 150 words.
23. Divide into 2 groups. Group 1 translates Extract A and group 2 – extract B of the text “What Is an Integrated Circuit?” with a dictionary in writing.
Our world is full of integrated circuits. You find several of them in computers. For example, most people have probably heard about the microprocessor. The microprocessor is an integrated circuit that processes all information in the computer. It keeps track of what keys are pressed and if the mouse has been moved. It counts numbers and runs programs, games and the operating system. Integrated circuits are also found in almost every modern electrical device such as cars, television sets, CD players, cellular phones, etc. But what is an integrated circuit and what is the history behind it? The integrated circuit is nothing more than a very advanced electric circuit. An electric circuit is made from different electrical components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors and diodes, that are connected to each other in different ways. These components have different behaviors. The transistor acts like a switch. It can turn electricity on or off, or it can amplify current. It is used for example in computers to store information, or in stereo amplifiers to make the sound signal stronger. The resistor limits the flow of electricity and gives us the possibility to control the amount of current that is allowed to pass. Resistors are used, among other things, to control the volume in television sets or radios. The capacitor collects electricity and releases it all in one quick burst; like for instance in cameras where a tiny battery can provide enough energy to fire the flashbulb.
The diode stops electricity under some conditions and allows it to pass only when these conditions change. This is used in, for example, photocells where a light beam that is broken triggers the diode to stop electricity from flowing through it.
These components are like the building blocks in an electrical construction kit. Depending on how the components are put together when building the circuit, everything from a burglar alarm to a computer microprocessor can be constructed.
When building a circuit, it is very important that all connections are intact. If not, the electrical current will be stopped on its way through the circuit, making the circuit fail. Before the integrated circuit, assembly workers had to construct circuits by hand, soldering each component in place and connecting them with metal wires. Engineers soon realized that manually assembling the vast number of tiny components needed in, for example, a computer would be impossible, especially without generating a single faulty connection. Another problem was the size of the circuits. A complex circuit, like a computer, was dependent on speed. If the components of the computer were too large or the wires interconnecting them too long, the electric signals couldn't travel fast enough through the circuit, thus making the computer too slow to be effective. So there was a problem of numbers. Advanced circuits contained so many components and connections that they were virtually impossible to build. This problem was known as the tyranny of numbers. The integrated circuit has come a long way since Jack Kilby's first prototype. His idea founded a new industry and is the key element behind our computerized society. Today the most advanced circuits contain several hundred millions of components on an area no larger than a fingernail. The transistors on these chips are around 90 nm, that is 0.00009 millimeters, which means that you could fit hundreds of these transistors inside a red blood cell. Each year computer chips become more powerful yet cheaper than the year before. Gordon Moore, one of the early integrated circuit pioneers and founders of Intel once said, "If the auto industry advanced as rapidly as the semiconductor industry, a Rolls Royce would get a half a million miles per gallon, and it would be cheaper to throw it away than to park it."
In Russian write a content-based summary of the text you have translated.
25. Translate into English the summary made in ex.24 of the text you haven’t read.
Make a reverse written translation (from Russian into English) of the Extract you have translated.
Serve as simultaneous interpreter. Make an oral reverse interpretation of the text.
Find more information about Integrated Circuits and tell your group mates.
|Modal Verbs of Probability|
|must||He must be in the lab = very probable that he is in the lab||95 % sure|
|could might||He could be in the lab/ He might be in the lab = possible, but less probable||45 % sure|
|can’t||He can’t be in the lab = very probable that he is not in the lab||95 % sure|
|Modal Verbs of Obligation|
|have to must should||I/you/we/they/he/she||must/mustn’t should/shouldn’t||work hard|
|I/you/we/they||have to don’t have to|
|he/she||has to doesn’t have to|
|do||I/ you/ we/they||have to work hard?|
Modal Verbs of Ability
|can to be able to||I/you/we/they/he/she||can||fix this device|
|I||am able to|
|he/she||is able to|
|we/they/you||are able to|
Equivalents of Modal Verbs
|can to be able to …||can am/is/are able to …||could was/were able to …||------- will be able to …|
|may to be allowed to …||may am/is/are allowed to…||might was/were allowed to...||------- will be allowed to…|
|must/have to be to||must/have/has to … am/is/are to …||had to … was/were to …||------- will have to…|
1. Fill in the table.
|widespread||широко распространённый||[′waIdspred], (adj)|
Put in the missing words, using the words from the table above.
1. The use of light isotopes in a … reactor has been under experimental study since the 1950s.
2. Many metals are malleable and … .
3. If left unchecked, … will eventually weaken the pipeline.
4. Nuclear power makes a … contribution to the environment by curbing carbon dioxide emissions.
5. To … each gram of water requires heating 2, 500 grams of regolith up to red heat.
6. The references and diagrams were … to the document.
7. Specialist image analysis equipment for light and electron microscope images also requires interfacing with … computers.
8. Whether the technology ever will gain … use is uncertain.
9. … is a piece of equipment for changing electricity from one voltage to another.
10. Everyone is being encouraged to … energy.
Match the words with the opposite meaning.
|1. to join 2. safe 3. soft 4. inside 5. small 6. present 7. functional||a. stiff b. tremendous c. ancient d. to divide e. outside f. decorative g. dangerous|
4. Divide the words into four columns according to their part of speech (verb, noun, adjective, adverb).
Workpiece, electric, powerful, transformer, melt, dangerous, continuously, join, safety, quickly, soften, fusion, essential, dry, investment, currently, property, investigate.
Study the table, then do exercises that follow.
|1. The following suffixes are used to form nouns from verbs: -tion, -sion, -ance, -ure, -er/-or, -ment 2. The following prefixes are used to give the oppositemeaning to the word: dis-, in-, im-, un-|
a. Make up nouns of the following verbs:
to resist –
to differ –
to restrict –
to press –
to depend –
to absorb –
to produce –
to transform –
to fuse –
to move –
to perform –
to operate –
to locate –
to require –
b. Give the opposite to:
Choose the appropriate English equivalents.
A. Мы должны были рассмотреть.– 1. We must consider; 2. We had to consider; 3. We have to consider; 4. We were to consider.
B. Они должны использовать. –1. They are to employ; 2. They can employ; 3. They have to employ; 4. They must employ.
C. Мы должны будем поместить. –1. We must place; 2. We shall have to place; 3. We shall be able to place; 4. We shall be allowed to place.
D. Вам придётся усовершенствовать. –1. You will have to improve; 2. You will improve; 3. You will be able to improve; 4. You will be allowed to improve.
The students are at the seminar on metal technology. Read to their discussion and learn what properties copper has and where it can be used. Insert the appropriate modal verbs.
Professor: Dear students, today we’re going to discuss the main properties and applications of copper. So far, what … you say about this metal?
Alex: If I’m not mistaken, copper is a non-ferrous metal. And it … be found in a free state in nature.
Nick: And as far as I remember, people … to extract this metal in prehistoric times. Various things such as weapons, tools and decorations … be made of it.
Professor: Very good. Were those copper tools very reliable?
Alex: I think not. Pure copper is a soft ductile metal. Strong cutting tools … be made only of copper alloys such as bronze.
Professor: OK. What are the present applications of copper?
Nick: Well, they are numerous. Copper metals … be used in most domestic appliances. Electrical industry is impossible without copper wiring as it is a very good conductor of electricity. Also, copper is corrosion resistant which makes it valuable for marine industry. Besides, this metal is even used in making money!
Professor: You are quite right. Tomorrow we … to study the valuable properties of copper in the practical class.
8. That’s how we ask for and give permission in English. Study the table.
|ASKING PERMISSION||GIVING PERMISSION|
|Can (may, could) …? Is it all right if …? Do you mind if … + Present Simple Would you mind if … + Past Simple||You can/may if you want/like. Yes, of course. Certainly. Go ahead. By all means.|
Complete the dialogues using the phrases for asking and giving permission.
a. - … I have my practice at the British Steel Works?
b. - … I observe the steel making process?
c. - … we study the properties of various types of steels today?
- … Later we’ll discuss … .
d. - …I use these substances for the experiment?
e. - … I continue the research?
f. - … we studied the influence of temperature on the strength of plastics?
Find words formed from the first word in the line.
1. corrode – code, corrosive, charge, conductor
2. cast – substance, content, casting, steel
3. require – environment, requirement, refine, tempering
4. pure – sulphur, powerful, impurity, perform
5. metal – modern, meat, malleable, non-metal
6. considerable – carbon, constituent, construction, considerably
7. complete – competition, completely, tremendous, economical
8. charge – change, research, discharge, consumer
9. exhaust – explanation, expensive, efficiency, inexhaustible
Restore the original sentences.
1. was/ allowed/ the/ research/ he/ continue/ to
2. carbon/ engineer/ content/ the/ of/ increase/ steel/ the/ may/ the/ in
3. may/ these/ for/ you/ substances/ experiment/ use/ the
4. cannot/ this/ describe/ experiment/ I/ results/ the/ of/ today
5. be/ copper/ alloyed/ can/ iron/with.
6. engineers/ copper/ use/ can/conductors/ electrical/ for/ the
7. cannot/ this/ difference/ and/ brass/ student/ explain/ the/ between/ bronze
8. test/ substance/ in/ scientists/ the/ can/ use/ samples/ the/ this/ of/ the
9. must/ Alex/ a/ write/ report/ the/ of/ detailed/ test
10. compare/ two/ of/ they/ tests/ must/ results/ the
Say what these people could do in the past.
For example: I cannot use the new apparatus now but I could use it yesterday.
1. He cannot do research on copper alloys this term but he … it last term.
2. We cannot compare the properties of these substances now but we … them during our previous experiment.
3. They cannot study aluminium bronze at the lesson now but they … it in the lab yesterday.
4. We cannot extract copper with the help of stone and bone but ancient people … it in this way thousands of years ago.
5. I cannot describe the results of his experiment today but I … them yesterday.
Give advice to your friend in the following situations. Use the modal verb should.
For example: Student A: I have an examination tomorrow.
Student B: Well, you should work very hard tonight.
1. I don’t know how to draw up a report of my experiment.
2. I’m very tired after the practical class.
3. I’d like to know more about plastics.
4. I’d like to buy good sports equipment.
5. I want to become a materials engineer but I don’t know what I must study and at what University.
Use the following statements in the past and future.
For example: He can drive well / He may continue the research.
He coulddrive well 10 years ago / He was allowed to continue the research.
He will be able to drive well in a month / He will be allowed to
continue the research.
1. He can continue his studies at the Mechanical Engineering faculty.
2. Our engineers can extract copper in several ways.
3. You may use carbon steel in the construction of this building.
4. I can visit the Bingham Canyon copper mine.
5. She may extract iron from iron ores.
6. You may use manganese for changing properties of steels.
7. This new car can move without a driver.
8. You may apply alloy steels for various engineering purposes.
9. The scientists can use the samples of this substance in the test.
10. The engineer may increase the carbon content of the steel.
Ask your partner to explain what can happen to these engineering materials.
For example: copper / to be alloyed with iron
A: Can copper be alloyed with iron?
B: Certainly it can. Copper can be alloyed with iron.
or I’m afraid it can’t. Copper can’t be alloyed with iron.
1. a ductile metal / to be worked into a new shape
2. copper / to be used as a conductor of electricity
3. tin / to be alloyed with copper
4. brass / to be used in bearings and gears
5. copper / to be recycled several times.
Your partner is an Instructor in the lab. Ask him if you may perform the following actions. Work in pairs.
For example: to use these substances for the experiment
A: May I use these substances for the experiment?
B: Yes, you may. You may use these substances for the experiment.
To elaborate the plan of the research; to experiment with alloying elements; to carry out different operations on milling machines; to demonstrate the properties of tool steels; to observe the steel-making process.
Your friend wanted to do a lot of things at the practical class yesterday. Ask him if he was allowed to do all of them.
For example: to demonstrate the new applications of steels
A: Were you allowed to demonstrate the new applications of steels?
B: No, I wasn’t. But I will be allowed to do it tomorrow.
To work in the rolling mill; to test the performance characteristics of alloy steels; to use a new milling machine; to study the structure of stainless steels; to observe how steel is cast.
Discuss with your friend which of these things may be done.
For example: machine tools / to be made of pig iron
A: May machine tools be made of pig iron?
B: Certainly they may. They may be made of pig iron.
or B: I’m afraid they may not. They may not be made of pig iron.
a. pure iron / to be refined
b. the properties of iron / to be modified easily
c. the carbon content of steel / to be varied
d. hydrogen / to be added to alloy steel
e. steel / to be tempered
f. steel alloys / to be protected from corrosion
g. steel / to be used for electrical wiring
h. machine tools / to be made of pure iron
Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.
1. В качестве электрического проводника мы можем использовать медь.
2. Мы смогли изучить свойства алюминия на практических занятиях.
3. Преимущество меди в том, что её можно перерабатывать несколько раз.
4. Вчера на практическом занятии мы должны были провести эксперимент с мультиметром.
5. Мы не можем сравнить свойства этих элементов.
6. Вы не могли бы объяснить мне как добывается медь?
7. Могу ли я использовать эти элементы для эксперимента?
8. Студенты должны сравнить результаты двух экспериментов.
9. Медные сплавы могут быть использованы в разных отраслях промышленности.
10. Бронза может оказывать сопротивление коррозии.
20. Choose as many words from the table оf ex. 1 as you can and form sensible sentences using Modal Verbs.
For example: We can alloy copper with aluminium.
21. Read the text “Copper” only once. How much can you remember? Answer these questions without additional reading.
1. Is copper the oldest metal that is known to man?
2. What properties does copper possess?
3. What is bronze?
4. When, where and why did bronze appear?
5. What are the applications of copper and its alloys?
6. Why aren’t we afraid of working out the resources of copper?
If you failed try to answer these questions again after doing the exercises given below the text.
Copper is man’s oldest metal as people could extract it more than 10.000 years ago. As it is rather soft and ductile, copper is alloyed with other elements. There is evidence that the first copper alloy – bronze (90% copper, 10% tin) – was produced around 2800 BC in countries such as India, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Bronze was harder and could be used for making reliable cutting tools. Its use characterizes the Bronze Age.
The workability and the ability for corrosion resistance made copper, bronze and brass the most important functional as well as decorative materials from the Middle Ages and on till the present day. With the beginning of the Electrical Age the demand for copper increased tremendously because it is an unusually good conductor of electricity and heat. Today more than 5 million tons of copper are produced annually and the copper metals are playing an increasingly vital part in all branches of modern technology.
The good news is that we will not run out of copper. The worldwide resources of this important and valuable metal can be estimated at nearly 5.8 trillion pounds of which only about 0.7 trillion (12%) have been mined throughout history. Besides, nearly all of 700 billion pounds is still in circulation because the recycling rate of copper is higher than that of any other engineering metal. Each year nearly as much copper is recovered from recycled material as is obtained from newly mined ore. Almost half of all recycled copper scrap is old post-consumer scrap, such as discarded electric cable, junked automobile radiators and air conditioners, or even ancient Egyptian plumbing! The remainder is new scrap, such as chips and turnings from screw machine production. Engineers hope that we will be able to use copper for centuries on.
22. Read the text again and complete the sentences.
1. Today more than 5 million tons of copper are …
2. As it is rather soft and ductile, copper is …
3. ... was produced around 2800 BC in countries such as India, Egypt and Mesopotamia.
4. With the beginning of the Electrical Age the demand for copper …
5. … recovered from recycled material as is obtained from newly mined ore.
6. Engineers hope that …
7. Copper is man’s oldest metal as people could …
8. … could be used for making reliable cutting tools.
9. Today more than 5 million tons of copper are …
10. … because the recycling rate of copper is higher than that of any other engineering metal.
23. Match the terms in Table A with their definitions in Table B.
|Table A||Table B|
|1. copper 2. bronze 3. alloy 4. corrosion 5. brass||a. a very hard bright yellow metal that is a mixture of copper and zinc b. a metal that consists of two or more metals mixed together c. the gradual destruction of metal by the effect of water, chemicals etc. d. a soft reddish metal that allows electricity and heat to pass through it easily and is used to make electrical wires, water pipes etc. e. a hard metal that is a mixture of copper and tin.|
24. Summarize the text “Copper” in 150 words.
25. Divide into 2 groups. Group 1 translates Extract A and group 2 – extract B of the text “Welding” with a dictionary in writing.
Welding is one of the most important operations that are used in industry. Many parts of machines, automobiles, airplanes, ships and buildings are welded.
In order to join two metal pieces it is necessary to soften them with heat and then to press, hammer or fuse them together. The most widely used method of welding is electric arc welding where the workpieces are joined by means of electricity at the temperature of about 7,232 õF. This is the hottest heat that can be obtained for engineering purposes.
In electric arc welding two workpieces are welded by an electric arc. In order to create the arc a powerful electric current should be provided. The current must be at least 60A and for thicker workpieces it may be 250A or more.
To supply the current it is necessary to use a transformer. The latter must be switched on to strike the arc. To join the workpieces the electrode must brush against the workpiece at 80õ to its surface. As a result current flows between the electrode and the workpiece the tip of the electrode melts and falls onto the workpiece. Thus a joint is created.
It is essential to hold the electrode approximately 4 mm from the surface of the workpiece. One should not leave the electrode too long in the same position because it will become attached to the workpiece. The electrode must be moved across the joint continuously backwards in a straight line. However, if it is moved too quickly neither the electrode nor the workpiece will melt.
And it is important to remember that to weld plates by an electric arc is quite dangerous. In order to protect yourself you should follow certain safety rules. For example, it is absolutely necessary to wear overalls with long sleeves, gloves, an apron, a cap and rubber boots. A mask or helmet is used to protect the face and especially eyes from sparks.
The unique properties of lasers account for their widespread application in manufacturing industry. Laser beam welding is currently used in order to weld steels, aluminum alloys and dissimilar materials. This high power density welding process has unique advantages of coast effectiveness, deep penetration and narrow bead in comparison with conventional welding processes. As the thermal cycles of laser beam welding are generally much faster than those of arc welding it is possible to form a rather small weld zone that exhibits locally high hardness.
However, it is important to point out that the metallurgical and mechanical properties of laser welds and the response of conventional materials to this new process have not been fully established yet. It is currently difficult to determine the tensile properties of the laser welded joint area owing to the small size (2-3 mm) of the fusion zone. Therefore an experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of laser-welded joints was carried out. To determine the hardness profile of the welded metal three similar joints were produced by a CO² laser and microhardness measurements were conducted at three locations. It is important to mention that the microhardness test results, however, exhibited no significant difference between these three locations for all the welded joints.
The welding process may lead to drastic changes in the microstructure with accompanying effects on the mechanical properties and, hence, on the performance of the joint. Laser welded joints, like all other welded joints, may contain defects in the form of cracks in the narrow weld area. The size and location of such cracks directly affect the joint performance and the lifetime of a structure. Nevertheless, it is essential to remember that laser beam welding has a number of advantages over conventional processes. Despite the high investment cost of laser welding equipment, it is expected that laser beam welding will have a great impact on fabrication and manufacturing industries within the next decade.
26. In Russian write acontent-based summary of the text you have translated.
27. Translate into English the summary made in ex.26 of the text you haven’t read.
Make a reverse written translation (from Russian into English) of the Extract you have translated.
Make a dialogue according to the situation given using Modal Verbs.
Student A:You have missed your class and you don’t know how to weld plates. Prepare your questions and ask your friend for instructions.
Student B:Help your friend to understand the welding process. Get ready to answer his questions.
Serve as simultaneous interpreter. Make an oral reverse interpretation of the text.
31. Find more information about the process of welding and tell your group mates.
The Article (a/an; the)
|1. singular countable nouns: · a student||1. when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean: · Turn off the light, please. (= the light in this room)||1. plural countable nouns: · students|
|2. uncountable nouns, used in the meaning of countable nouns: I bought a paper to read. (= a newspaper) but I need paper to write on. (= material for writing on)||2. when we are thinking of a specific thing: · I mended the computer yesterday (= my computer)||2. uncountable nouns: · water, ore|
|3. when we mention thing or person for the first time: · A man was sitting opposite me.||3. only one of something: · The captain is on deck. (there is only one captain on a ship)||3. in the word television but The television = the television set|
|4. singular: · nationality can be singular a Japanese, a Sudanese, a Swiss||4. we say: the sky, the sea, the ground, the country, the environment||4. noun + article: room 127 (in a hotel) question 3 (in an exam)|
|5. if the plural noun of a nationality ends in –s: · an Italian -> Italians; · a Turk -> Turks;||5. before same: · the same||5. prison, hospital, university, college and church (as a general idea of these places)|
|6. usually the radio||6. bed; work; home|
|7. with most places: the cinema, the bank, the theatre, the post office||7. go to sea; be at sea; go/be on voyage|
|8. when we mean a type of something: · The computer is my favourite device.||8. about things or people in general: · My favourite subject is physics.|
|9. the + adjective (without a noun) to talk about groups of people: · the young · the unemployed||9. man (= human beings in general/ the human race)|
|10. the + nationality adjectives ending in –ch or –sh: · the English · the Spanish ending in –ese: · the Chinese · the Japanese · the Sudanese||10. before names of people, continents, countries, states, islands, cities, towns, mountains etc.: · Jack · Europe · Bermuda · Cairo · Everest|
|11. in names with Republic, Kingdom, States: · the United Kingdom · the Republic of Belarus||11. Mr./Mrs./Captain/Doctor etc. + a name: · President Johnson · Doctor Johnson mount (= mountain) and lake in the same way · Mount Etna|
|12. with plural names of people and places: · the Taylors · the Rocky Mountains||12. names of companies, airlines etc.: · Sony · Apple · IBM|
|13. before adjectives and adverbs in a comparative degree: · The sooner you come back the better.||13. with prepositions from, to: · from side to side · from day to day|
|14. if a noun is an object to a verb: · to lose sight · to take part|
|a lot of, a great deal of, a good deal of, a great number of, a good many, a great manyмного a fewнесколько a littleнемного all of a suddenвнезапно as a result ofв результате чего-либо as a matter of factфактически, на самом деле at a timeодновременно, за один раз at a speed ofсо скоростью в for a short (long) timeв течение короткого (долгого) времени, на короткий (долгий) срок at a time whenв то время когда||in a loud (low) voiceгромким (тихим) голосом on a large (small) scaleв большом (малом) масштабе it is a pityжаль to be in a hurryспешить to be in a positionбыть в состоянии to be at a lossбыть в затруднении to have a good timeхорошо провести время to have a mindнамереваться to have a headacheиспытывать головную боль to have a coldбыть простуженным to go for a walkпойти гулять to take a seatсесть|
|in the morningутром in the eveningвечером in the afternoonднем, после полудня in the nightночью in the countryза городом, в деревне on the right (left)справа (слева) on the one (other) handс одной (другой) стороны on the wholeв целом, в общем the day before yesterdayпозавчера the day after tomorrowпослезавтра||the other dayна днях What is the time?Который час? to tell the timeговорить который час to go to the theatre (the cinema, the pictures)ходить в театр (кино) to play the piano (the violin)играть на пианино (на скрипке) to tell the truthговорить правду to pass the timeпроводить время to run the riskподвергаться риску|
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