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In Russian write a content-based summary of the text you have translated.

Читайте также:
  1. A chapter-by-chapter commentary on the major difficulties of the text and the cultural and historical facts that may be unknown to Russian-speaking readers.
  2. A friend has just come back from holiday. You ask him about it. Write your questions.
  3. A friend has just come back from holiday. You ask him about it. Write your questions.
  4. A Russian / Soviet / Ukrainian and a British / UK / Welsh war hero.
  5. A Russian Fairy Tale
  6. A Write the questions for the answers below.
  7. A- Write the scientific term

Make a reverse written translation (from Russian into English) of your summary.

30. Find more information about classification of materials based on other principles and tell your group mates.

UNIT IV

MATTER, ELEMENTS AND ATOMS

Language Work

Past Simple

Affirmative

I/we/you/they/he/she/it carried out/turned off/left

For example:

· Alex carried out the experiment yesterday.

· They turned the gas off several hours ago.

The past of be (am/is/are) is was/were:

I/he/she/it was/wasn’t   was I/he/she/it?
we/you/they were/weren’t   were we/you/they?

For example:

· Physics was my favourite subject at school.

· In the 19th and early 20th century electricity wasn’t a part of the everyday life of many people.

· Were you interested in electronics earlier?

· There were a lot of electrical devices in the laboratory.

Negative (with the auxiliary verb)

I/we/you/they/he/she/it didn’t carry out/turn off/leave

For example:

· Alex didn't carry out her instructions precisely.

· The student left the laboratory, but he didn’t turn off the light.

Negative (with no auxiliary verb)

I/we/you/they/he/she/it could/might not carry out/ turn off/ leave
I/we/you/they/he/she/it was/were not (a) specialist(s)
I/we/you/they/he/she/it had no/hadn’t or didn’t have time

For example:

· We could not carry out more research.

· I had no time to finish my test.

· You were not a specialist when you studied at the University.

Questions (with the auxiliary verb)

Did I/we/you/they/he/she/it carry out?/ turn off?/leave?

For example:

· Did Alex carry out the experiment yesterday?

· Did you turn off the water supply before carrying out repairs?

Questions (with no auxiliary verb)

Could/ Might I/we/you/they/he/she/it carry out?/turn off?/leave?
Was/were I/we/you/they/he/she/it (a) scientist(s)?
Had I/we/you/they/he/she/it a lab class yesterday?

For example:

· Could you work under these circumstances?

· Was your grandfather a scientist?

· Had you any problems while testing a new device?

Spelling

The verb ending Changes Examples
-e only -d is added to measure – measured
-y, preceded by a consonant -y is changed into -–i and -ed to apply – applied
a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant (except c, w, z), preceded by a short vowel the final consonant is doubled and -ed is added to stop – stopped  

Remember: Irregular past tense forms must be memorized because they are not related to simple forms in any predictable way.

For example:

leave – left become – became make – made   spend – spent He left the battery on charge an hour ago. The object became positively charged. A.Volta made a battery from alternating layers of zink and copper. Last week Alex spent a lot of time in the laboratory.

1. Fill in the table.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Translation Transcription
electricity          
(in) isolation (from), (U)   isolated     [‚aIsq′leISqn]
nucleus nuclei   nuclear   ядро (а), ядерный [′nju:klIqs]( n.sing.) [′nju:klIaI](n.pl.) [′njukliq](adj)
  transmit        
        изобретение  
amount amount to        
  include        
  provide        
shell       оболочка  
    inner      
      particularly   [pq′tIkjulqli]
    outer      
    average     [′xvqrIG]
power          
  enable (smb/smth to do smth)       [I′neIbql]
    flexible      
  transform        

2. Read and translate the following international words:

Nouns (n): association, centre, characteristic, colleague, conference, contact, cooperation, fundamentals, international, mass, neutron, orbit, proton, reaction, reactor, specialist, sphere, synthetics, system, technician, theory, university, valency = valence.



Adjectives (adj): characteristic, chemical, electrical, electronic, elementary, experimental, fundamental, official, practical, socialist, theoretical, unique.

Adverbs (adv): experimentally, fundamentally, officially, practically, theoretically.

Verbs (v):cooperate, orbit, theorize, contact.

3. What does the -ed sound like? If you are not sure, consult the table from Unit 3.

amplified, attracted, described, rectified, employed, obtained, compared, emitted, conducted, occurred, showed, switched, produced, developed, heated, increased, tested, added, charged, explained, limited, insulated, placed.

4. Put in the missing words, using the words from the previous units and the table above.

1. Our laboratory …a new semiconductor device last year.

2. In each atom there is a …, containing a number of protons and a number of neutrons.

3. Each electron has a negative electrical … .

4. Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in … in the 18th century.

5. Wood is an excellent … .

6. Matter is a term that traditionally refers to the … that all objects are made of.

7. The atoms of any … element all have the same … mass.

8. A molecule is the smallest … of a substance that can retain (сохранять) the characteristic properties of that substance.

9. The … shell of any atom is called its valence shell.

10. Electricity is made by converting some form of energy into flowing electrons at the … plant.

11. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at that time … industry and society.

 

Put all possible questions to the following statements.

For example:Sir William Crookes developed the first cathode ray tube in 1870.

· Did Sir William Crookes develop the first cathode ray tube in 1870?

· When did Sir William Crookes develop the first cathode ray tube ?

Загрузка...

· Who developed the first cathode ray tube in 1870 ?

· What did Sir William Crookes develop in 1870?

 

1. Electricity became a necessity of everyday life in the 20th century.

2. The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820.

3. We tested the new equipment in the lab yesterday.

4. A prototype solar-powered plane made its first full test flight in Switzerland.

5. UK researchers developed a device to drag space junk out of orbit.

6. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Simple.

1. Alex (to carry out) the experiment yesterday.

2. The student (to measure) the temperature of water 5 minutes ago.

3. Sir Isaak Newton (to develop) the Three Laws of Motion.

4. In ancient times the systematic study of fundamental natural laws (to be) not a huge concern.

5. Michael (to check) this device last week.

6. The farm (to be) very isolated, but it (to have) electricity.

7. Faraday (to invent) the electric motor in 1821.

8. Practical applications for electricity however (to remain) few, and only in the late nineteenth century engineers (to be) to put it to industrial and residential use.

9. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at that time (to transform) industry and society.

10. In 1600 the English physician William Gilbert (to make) a careful study of electricity and magnetism.

7. Form nouns from the following adjectives using the suffix -ity and translate them:

For example:able – способный; ability – способность

possible – возможный;

stable – стабильный;

intensive – интенсивный;

major – больший;

minor – меньший;

resistive – имеющий сопротивление;

radioactive – радиоактивный;

elastic – эластичный.

 

8. Choose the appropriate English equivalents:

Они зарядили – 1.They chargе; 2.They charged; 3.They will charge .

Это произошло –1.This took place;2.This takes place;3.This will take place.

Мы не брали – 1.We do not take; 2.We did not take; 3.We will not take.

Это не зависело от – 1. This will not depend on; 2. This does not depend on; 3. This did not depend on.

9.Form verbs from the following adjectives using the suffix-ize and translate them:

For example:general – общий; generalize - обобщать

 

special – специальный;

normal – нормальный;

neutral – нейтральный;

local – локальный, местный;

ideal – идеальный;

real – реальный;

10. Read and translate word-combinations starting from the first component:

1. ionized isolated neutral atom radioactive 5. absolute atomic Earth’s orbit eccentric elliptical 9. negative irrational maximum number natural positive
2. alpha-radioactive atomic nucleus active 6. positive valency negative 10. ionizing particles attracting
3. limitingamplifier integrating 7. emitting electrode focusing 11. circulating motion oscillating
4. accelerating grid modulating 8. operating current pulsating  

Match the following word-combinations with their translations.

1. high-dielectric material 2. heat conduction 3. static charge 4. temperature-sensitive material 5. nuclear charge 6. spinning electron 7. superconductive material 8. cable isolation a. статический заряд b. материал с высокой диэлектрической проницаемостью c. заряд ядра d. термочувствительный материал e. теплопроводность f. изоляция кабеля g. сверхпроводящий материал h. вращающийся электрон

Match the following sentences with their translations.

1. Matter consists of one or more elements. 2. An atom is the smallest particle. 3. In each atom there is a nucleus. 4. The nucleus is surrounded by a number of electrons. 5. The electrons orbit around the nucleus. 6. An atom has as many protons as it has electrons. 7. This results in a zero electrical charge of the atom. 8. There are fourteen protons in the nucleus of a silicon atom. 9. The outer shell of any atom is called its valence shell. a. Ядро окружено несколькими электронами. b. Внешняя оболочка любого атома называется его валентной оболочкой. c. Атом – это мельчайшая частица элемента. d. В атоме столько протонов, сколько и электронов. e. В ядре атома кремния имеется 14 протонов. f. В каждом атоме есть ядро. g.Электроны вращаются вокруг ядра. h. Вещество (материал) состоит из одного или более элементов. i. Это приводит в результате к нулевому электрическому заряду атома.

13.Choose as many words from the table оf ex. 1 as you can and form sensible sentences in Past Simple (affirmative, negative and interrogative).

For example:

• According to the report the country possessed four nuclear reactors.

SPECIALIST READING

 

14. Read the text “Matter, Elements and Atoms” and fill in the table.

Phenomenon Definition
Element  
Atom  
Nucleus  
Shell  

Matter, Elements and Atoms

Matter consists of one or more elements. Elements are substances that cannot be divided into other substances. An atom is the smallest particle of an element, which has all the properties of the element and can take part in chemical reactions. In each atom there is a nucleus containing a number of protons (each proton has a positive electrical charge) and a number of neutrons, having no electrical charge. The nucleus is surrounded by a number of electrons. Each electron has a negative electrical charge. The electrons orbit around the nucleus. An atom has as many protons as it has electrons. This results in a zero electrical charge of the atom. Electrons orbit around the nucleus in one of the several possible orbits. These orbits are called shells. In a silicon atom there are fourteen protons in the nucleus. Fourteen electrons orbit around the nucleus in three orbits. The first or inner shell contains two electrons and cannot hold any more electrons. In the second shell there are eight electrons. It cannot hold additional electrons either (также). In the third shell there are only four electrons. This shell can hold more electrons. The outer shell of any atom is called its valence shell. The number of electrons in the valence shell is known as the valency of the atom.

 

15. Read the text again and complete the sentences.

1. In each atom there is … .

2. … is known as the valency of the atom.

3. An atom is the smallest particle of an element, which … .

4. The nucleus is surrounded by … .

5. The outer shell of any atom is called … .

6. An atom has as many protons as … .

7. In a silicon atom there are … .

8. … are substances that cannot be divided into other substances.

9. … orbit around the nucleus in one of the several possible orbits.

 

Match the terms in Table A with their definitions in Table B.

Table A Table B
1. matter 2. atom 3. proton 4. nucleus 5. valency a. The smallest part of an element that can exist alone or can combine with other substances to form a molecule. b. The material that everything in the universe is made of, including solids, liquids and gases. c. The central part of an atom, made up of neutrons, protons and other elementary particles. d. A very small piece of matter with a positive electrical charge that is in the central part of an atom. e. A measure of the power of atoms to combine together to form compounds.

SPEAKING

17. Summarize the textMatter, Elements and Atoms’ in 150 words.

18. You are taking your exam in Physics. Your examination card says: Matter, its definition and basic notions. Your partner is your examiner. Answer his questions and try to get a good mark.

You may begin like this: -Well, what is matter?

Your partner: - Matter is …

19. Divide into 2 groups. Group 1 translates Extract A and group 2 – extract B of the text “Electricity” with a dictionary in writing, paying attention to the use of the Past Simple.

Extract A

Electricity is simply a movement of charged particles through a closed circuit. The electrons, which flow through this wire carry a negative charge. Electricity is made by converting some form of energy into flowing electrons at the power plant. The type of power plant depends on the source of energy used: thermal power plant (coal, oil, gas, nuclear, underground stream), solar power (photovoltaic), kinetic power (water, wind) and chemical power (fuel cell). After it is made, electricity is sent into a system of cables and wires called a transmission grid. This system enables power plants and end users to be connected.

Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though advances in the science were not made until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity however remained few, and only in the late nineteenth century engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at that time transformed industry and society.

Extraordinary versatility as a source of energy of electricity means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport, heating, lighting, communications, and computation.

Extract B

Electricity remained more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English physician William Gilbert made a careful study of electricity and magnetism and distinguished the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber. This association gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. Further work was conducted by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay. In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work.

Electricity is an extremely flexible form of energy, and has been adapted to a huge and growing number of uses. The invention of a practical incandescent light bulb in the 1870s led to lighting becoming one of the first publicly available applications of electrical power.

With the construction of first intercontinental, and then transatlantic, telegraph systems in the 1860s, electricity enabled communications in minutes across the globe.

In Russian write a content-based summary of the text you have translated.

21. Translate into English the summary made in ex.20 of the text you haven’t read.

Make a reverse written translation (from Russian into English) of the extract you have translated.

Serve as simultaneous interpreter. Make an oral reverse interpretation of the text.

Find more information about physical and chemical properties of all the substances which occur in nature and tell your group mates.

UNIT V

COVALENT BONDS

Language Work

PastContinuous

Affirmative

I/he/she/it/we/ you/they was/were testing/measuring/carrying out etc.

For example:

· Yesterday Alex and Jim were carrying out the experiment. They began at 11 o’clock and finished at 12.30.

· I was measuring voltage during my physics class.

 

Compare Past Continuous (I was doing) and Past Simple (I did):

Past Continuous (in the middle of an action) I was testinga new device when Alex called me. (in the middle of an action) Past Simple (complete action) I testeda new device last week. (= all the way, completely)

 

Fill in the table.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Translation Transcription
  radiate        
    constructive      
production          
  pulsate        
        поглощение  
heat          
force          
    absorbent     [qb′zO:pSqn][qb′sO:pSqn](n)
state          
  perform        
bond          
  create        
        количество  
  employ        
  equip       [I′kwIpmqnt](n)
piece          
  represent        
  purify pure     [pjuq](adj)
        примесь  
    relative      
    similar      
discovery          
  orbit        
        таблица  

 

2. Read and translate the following international words:

Nouns (n): crystal, group, helium, radiation, radium, valence, uranium.

Adjectives (adj): central, covalent, cubic, periodic, vertical, economic(al).

Verbs (v): group, radiate, vibrate.

 

3. Read the dialogue and learn how to speak about your past activities. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Continuous. Pay attention to the terms of electricity.

Peter: Hi, Paul. Glad to see you.

Paul: So am I. Peter, can you tell me what you (to do) yesterday from 9 till 11 a.m.? I (to look for) you.

Peter: Well, let me see. A few students and I (to carry out) some experiments with different electrical devices. As for me, I (to measure) the voltage.

Paul: And what about Alex? Do you happen to know what he (to do)?

Peter: As far as I remember, he (to measure) the resistance of a lead.

Paul: Oh, I see. I hope Michael (to help) him.

Peter: Yes, he was. He (to connect) leads to the multimeter. The needle (to indicate) the value of the resistance on the scale.

 

4. Put in the missing words, using the words from the table above:

1. Last year we were solving the problem of how to dispose of … waste.

2. Plants … oxygen.

3. The energetic flow circulates in harmony with the rhythm of its … .

4. Silicon is the material of which most semiconductors are … .

5. Darker surfaces … heat.

6. … passes quickly through materials such as metals.

7. Elements with … properties are placed in the same vertical column.

8. Some elements are created by atomic physicists using special … .

9. In the crystal … each atom employs its four valence electrons to form covalent … with four neighbouring atoms.

10. In its solid … silicon forms crystals of the diamond type.

 

Put all possible questions to the following statements.

For example: Alex was working in the lab from 5 till 7 yesterday.

· Was Alex working in the lab from 5 till 7 yesterday?

· What was Alex doing in the lab from 5 till 7 yesterday?

· Where was Alex working from 5 till 7 yesterday?

· Who was working in the lab from 5 till 7 yesterday?

1. I was measuring the value of the resistor from 2 till 3 yesterday.

2. Peter was connecting the leads to the resistor at that moment.

3. The students were investigating superconductors at 10.30.

4. We were carrying out the experiment in the lab during several hours.

5. The professor was checking our tests all day long.

 

6. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Continuous.

1. Paul (to test) a new device from 11 till 12 yesterday.

2. The students of the Technical University (to carry out) an experiment with a multimeter in the lab last week.

3. I (to measure) the voltage during our class.

4. Alex (to write) a report on the latest achievements in electricity at 7 o’clock yesterday.

5. Last year we (to solve) the problem of how to dispose of radiated waste.

6. The American physicist Robert A. Millikan (to observe) one drop after another, varying the voltage and noting the effect.

7. When Ernest Rutherford (to experiment) with radioactivity at the University of Manchester in 1911, atoms were generally believed to consist of large mushy blobs of positive electrical charge.

8. Physicists in Japan (to convert) an electrical current into a spin signal and then back again.

 

7. Form nouns from the following verbs using the suffix -ment and translate them:

For example:to develop - развивать; development - развитие

employ – использовать;

to equip – оборудовать;

to improve – улучшать;

to move – двигаться;

to place – помещать;

to require – требовать;

to treat – обрабатывать;

 

8. Choose the appropriate English equivalents.

Они заряжали – 1. They are charging; 2. They were charging; 3. They will be charging.

Это происходило – 1. This is taking place; 2. This was taking place; 3. This will be taking place.

Вода текла – 1. The water was flowing; 2. The water will be flowing; 3.The water is flowing.

Ток проходил – 1. The current will be passing; 2. The current is passing; 3. The current was passing.

 

9. Translate the text. Use a dictionary if necessary. To each sentence put different type of question in Past Continuous.

The students of the Technical University were carrying out an experiment with a multimeter in the lab last week. They were checking a mains socket in the wall and they were following all the safety instructions. Paul was using two probes that time. While he was inserting them into two terminals of the socket, his groupmate Alex was turning the function selector switch to the VAC (voltage alternating current) range. The needle was indicating the pressure of electricity, i.e. the voltage in the mains. It was 220 volts. Next time they are planning to measure the current in a table lamp.

 

10. Read and translate word-combinations starting from the first component:

1. electronic construction mathematical equipment production testing 4. alternating periodic physical quantity (величина) pulsating vector
2. integratedquantity (количество) large 5. mathematical table periodical
3. crystal lattice point (точечная) 6. valence electrons free

11. Match the following word-combinations with their translation.

a) special equipment b) a solid piece of pure silicon c) crystal lattice d) covalent bonds e) outer shell f) inner shell 1) внешняя оболочка 2) ковалентные связи 3) кристаллическая решётка 4) твёрдый кусок чистого кремния 5) внутренняя оболочка 6) специальное оборудование

Match the following sentences with their translation.

1. Elements with similar properties are placedinthe same vertical column. 2. Mendeleyev placed elements with similar properties in the same vertical column. 3. Elements placed in the same vertical column have similar properties. a. Элементы, помещённые в той же самой вертикальной колонке, имеют схожие свойства. b. Элементы с похожими свойствами помещены в той же самой вертикальной колонке. c. Менделеев поместил элементы с похожими свойствами в одной и той же вертикальной колонке.

 

13. Choose as many words as you can of ex.1 and form sensible sentences.

For example: Special noise absorption materials are even mixed with road asphalt and coat electric power lines here.

SPECIALIST READING

 

14. Read the text “Covalent Bonds” only once. How much can you remember? Answer these questions without additional reading.

1. What do you know about the Mendeleev Periodic Table of Elements?

2. How many elements are known to science today?

3. Do you know that some elements do not exist at all in nature?

4. How do you define valence electrons?

5. What can you say about atoms in a solid piece of pure silicon?

 

If you failed try to answer these questions again after doing the exercises given below the text.

In the Mendeleev Periodic Table of Elements all the elements are grouped according to their chemical properties. Elements with similar properties are placed in the same vertical column.

Today more than 100 (one hundred) elements are known to science. Some of them exist in large quantities. Others such as uranium and radium are relatively rare. Some elements do not exist at all in Nature, they are created by atomic physicist using special equipment.

In each atom, having many electrons, there is a nucleus and electrons orbiting around it in several shells. The electrons of the outer shell are called valence electrons. This outer shell can hold other electrons.

For example, in the aluminium atom there are three electrons in the outer shell. The atom of this metal can easily give up these valence electrons, that is why aluminium is a conductor.

In a solid piece of pure silicon there are four valence electrons. Each valence electron orbits not only around the parent atom but also around the neighbouring atom. This bond is called a covalent bond.

 

Read the text again and complete the sentences.

1. The electrons of the outer shell are called … .

2. Each valence electron orbits not only around the parent atom but also … .

3. … can easily give up valence electrons.

4. In a solid piece of pure silicon there are … .

5. … all the elements are grouped according to their chemical properties.

6. … is called a covalent bond.

7. Elements with similar properties are placed … .

8. … are relatively rare.

9. Some elements do not exist at all in Nature, they are … .

10. In each atom, having many electrons, there is … .

16. Study the text and translate the following:

· все элементы сгруппированы по их химическим свойствам

· элементы со схожими свойствами

· некоторые из элементов существуют в больших количествах

· некоторые элементы вообще не существуют в природе

· некоторые элементы создаются физиками-атомщиками

· специальное оборудование

· валентные электроны

· электроны внешней оболочки атома

· твёрдый кусок чистого кремния

· каждый валентный электрон вращается вокруг исходного атома

 

 

17. Match the terms in Table A with their definitions in Table B.

Table A Table B
1. concentration 2. absorption 3. equipment 4. impurity 5. resistance   a. A process in which something takes in liquid, gas, or heat. b. The ability of a substance to stop the flow of an electric current through it. c. The amount of a substance contained in a liquid. d. The tools, machines, clothes etc that you need to do a particular job or activity. e. A substance of a low quality that is contained in or mixed with something else, making it less pure.

SPEAKING

 

18. Summarize the text “Covalent Bonds” in 150 words.

In pairs ask and answer text-based questions.

For example:

· How many elements are known to science today?

· Do you know that some elements do not exist at all in nature?

· How can we define valence electrons?

· And what if we consider atoms in a solid piece of pure silicon?

 

20. Divide into 2 groups. Group 1 translates Extract A and group 2 – extract B of the text “Semiconductors” with a dictionary in writing.

Extract A

The two semiconductor materials used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices, such as diodes and transistors, are germanium and silicon. Both these materials fall into group IV of the Periodic Table of Elements. An atom of either substance may be represented by a central core having a positive charge and surrounded by orbiting electrons, each having a negative charge.

In its solid state silicon forms crystals of the diamond type, i.e. it forms a cubic lattice in which all the atoms except those at the surface are equidistant from their immediately neighbouring atoms. A study of crystal structure shows that the greatest number of atoms that can be neighbours to a particular atom at an equal distance away from that atom and yet be equidistant from one another is four. Hence each atom in a silicon crystal has four neighbouring atoms. In the crystal lattice each atom employs its four valence electrons to form covalent bonds with its four neighbouring atoms; each bond consists of two electrons, one from each atom. Each pair of electrons orbits around both its parent atom and a neighbouring atom.

Extract B

Semiconductors are soilids whose resistivity lies between those of electrical conductors and insulators. Semiconductors are used in computers, in radio and TV receivers, and in other electronic products.

Semiconductor devices perform many control functions. They may be used as rectifiers, amplifiers, detectors, oscillators and switching elements. Some characteristics, which make the semiconductors such an attractive member of the electronics family are the following:

1. Semiconductors are small and light in weight.

2. Semiconductors are solids. There is therefore little chance that elements will vibrate. Element vibration in vacuum tubes was the cause of microphonics.

3. Semiconductors require little power and radiate less heat than tubes. They do not need warm up time and operate as soon as power is applied.

4. Semiconductors do not undergo the chemical deterioration which occurs in tube cathodes. The deterioration of tube cathodes eventually results in unacceptable tube performance.

Silicon is the material of which most semiconductor devices are presently constructed.

 

In Russian write a content-based summary of the text you have translated.

22. Translate into English the summary made in ex.20 of the text you haven’t read.

Make a reverse written translation (from Russian into English) of the extract you have translated.

Serve as simultaneous interpreter. Make an oral reverse interpretation of the text.

25.Find more information about semiconductors and tell your group mates.

UNIT VI

INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTORS

Language Work

Past Simple Passive

 

Affirmative

I/he/she/it/we/you/they was/were tested

For example:

· The Statue of Liberty was designed by a French engineer. =

= A French engineer designed the statue of Liberty.

· Copper was discovered long ago.

 

Negative

I/he/she/it/we/you/they was not/were not tested

For example:

· Alex was not taught English at school.

 

Questions

Was/Were I/he/she/it/we/you/they tested?

For example:

· Was the first robot designed in the 20th century?

 

Positive Negative Question
The device was testedyesterday. The device was not testedyesterday. When was the device tested?

 

Past Continuous Passive

Affirmative

I/he/she/it/we/you/they was being/were being tested

 

For example:

· For a long time the electronic devices were being used for control.

· The bomb was being defused when it exploded.

Negative

I/he/she/it/we/you/they was not being/were not being tested

1. Fill in the table.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Translation Transcription
    concentrated      
  combine        
creation         [kri′eISqn] (n)
    lost      
connection          
  function        
cause         [kLz] (n,v)
    equal     [Jkwql] (n,v,adj)
hole          
    intrinsic      
  leave        
magnitude          
mobility   mobile      
  pass        
rate          
  receive        
    sufficient      
    total      
point          
    available      
  reduce        

 

2. Read and translate the following international words:

Nouns (n): coefficient, concentration, diagonal, gramme, minute, position, symptom.

Adjectives (adj): absolute, original, physical.

Verb (v): consult.

 

3. Put in the missing words, using the words from the table above:

a. Steel is produced by … iron with semiconductors.

b. The … of greenhouse gases in atmosphere is high.

c. Greenhouse gases … with hydrocarbons to form smog.

d. We considered many problems … with semiconductors.

e. Recombination causes a continual … of holes and free electrons.

f. а) The alarm system was not … when the paintings were stolen.

g. Some people believe the universe was … by a big explosion.

 

 


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Читайте в этой же книге: Degrees of Comparison | Make sentences from the words in brackets using the Present Perfect Passive. | Act as an interpreter. Translate the description of N-type and P-type- semiconductors given by your group mates from English into Russian. | The P-N Junction | SPECIALIST READING | SPECIALIST READING | Work in pairs. Make up a dialogue, using the following questions and answers. |
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Put the verb in brackets into the correct form, Present Continuous or Present Simple.| Put all possible questions to the following statements.

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