For example: Fuel was usually stored in a fuel tank.
· Where was fuel usually stored?
· When was fuel usually stored in a fuel tank?
· What was usually stored in a fuel tank?
1. This fuel was used in all types of engines.
2. The fuel system was controlled by engineers.
3. Volkswagen Beetle was designed by Rudolf Diesel.
4. The first steam engine was produced in France.
5. Bronze was first discovered in Africa.
5. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Simple Passive.
1. The concept of an atom (to propose) by early Indian and Greek philosophers.
2. The principles of quantum mechanics (to use) to successfully model the atom.
3. Electricity (to turn) from a scientific curiosity into an essential tool for modern life.
4. The Joule heating effect (to employ) in light bulb.
5. Theoretically, most of the electrons (to create) in the big bang.
6. Change the following sentences so as to use the Past Simple Passive.
1. The students measured the temperature of water 5 minutes ago.
2. Alex increased the volume of liquid an hour ago.
3. Paul checked this device in the lab.
4. People spoke much about the new invention.
5. Our professor carried out the experiment yesterday.
7. Form nouns from the following verbs and translate them:
For example:to combine – комбинировать; combination – комбинирование.
to construct – строить;
to form – образовывать;
to organize – организовывать;
to adjust – регулировать;
to equip – оборудовать;
8. Read and translate word-combinations
A. start from the first component
|1. production of heat of neutrons||3. heat-insulating non-conducting photographic material(материал) semiconducting conducting|
|2. ionization heat total loss radiation dielectric||4. radioactive emitting active material(вещество) absorbing activated|
B. start from the second component
|1. ionization de-ionization recombination production discharge rate corrosion reaction||2. impurity concentration electron|
|3. atomic electronic charge ionic nuclear|
9. Match the following words and phrases with their translation.
A.1. contact loss; 2. loss of vacuum; 3. energy loss; 4. metal loss; 5. temperature loss
1. потеря энергии; 2. спад температуры; 3. угар металла; 4. потеря в контакте; 5. ухудшение вакуума
В. 1. impurity concentration; 2. ion concentration; 3. rate of discharge; 4. corrosion rate; 5. information rate
1. концентрация ионов; 2. скорость коррозии; 3. скорость передачи информации; 4. скорость разряда; 5. концентрация примесей.
10. Choose the nouns from the following words.
1. a. producer; b. produced; c. production
2. a. relativity; b. relative; c. relatively
3. a. formed; b. formation; c. formally; d. formality
4. a. employment; b. employed; c. unemployment; d. employer
5. a. possible; b. impossible; c. possibility; d. impossibility
6. a. continued; b. continuation; c. continuous
7. a. conduct; b. conductor; c. conduction; d. conductivity
8. a. consideration; b. considered; c. considerably
9. a. attract; b. attraction; c. attractive; d. attracted
11. Match the following expressions with their translation:
|a) intrinsic semiconductor b) mobile electrons c) ground connection d) extrinsic semiconductor e) discharge rate f) recombination rate g) flame resistance||1) скорость рекомбинации 2) примесный полупроводник 3) подвижные электроны 4) скорость разряда (аккумулятора) 5) полупроводник с собственной проводимостью ( беспримесный) 6) огнестойкость 7) заземление|
12. Choose as many words from the table оf ex. 1 as you can and form sensible sentences in Past Simple Passive or Past Continuous Passive (affirmative, negative and interrogative).
· Your heating bills could be greatly reduced by using low-energy heaters.
13. Read the text “Electrons and Holes” only once. How much can you remember? Answer these questions without additional reading.
1. What takes place in an atom when one electron frees itself from a covalent bond?
2. Is the hole able to attract electrons?
3. Can you define the process of recombination?
4. Can you say anything about the rate of recombination?
5. What is intrinsic semiconductor?
If you failed try to answer these questions again after doing the exercises given below the text.
If the temperature of a silicon crystal is above absolute zero, some of the valence electrons will receive sufficient energy to free themselves from covalent bonds.
When an electron leaves the covalent bond it leaves behind it an ‘absence of an electron’. This absence of an electron consists of a missing negative charge ‘e’, and it is equivalent to a positive charge called ‘a hole’.
Each hole is able to attract electrons and can be filled by a passing electron. This process is called recombination. Recombination causes a continual loss of holes and free electrons. The rate of recombination of holes and electrons is always equal to the rate of production of new holes and electrons. The total number of free electrons and holes is constant. The material having equal concentrations of mobile electrons and holes is called an intrinsic semiconductor.
14. Read the text again and complete the sentences.
1. The rate of recombination of holes and electrons is always equal to … .
2. … causes a continual loss of holes and free electrons.
3. The material having equal concentrations of mobile electrons and holes is called … .
4. If the temperature of a silicon crystal is above absolute zero, … .
5. … is equivalent to a positive charge called ‘a hole’.
6. The total number of free electrons and holes is … .
7. … is able to attract electrons and can be filled by a passing electron.
8. The absence of an electron consists of … .
9. When an electron leaves the covalent bond it leaves … .
Match the terms in Table A with their definitions in Table B.
|Table A||Table B|
|1. rate 2. magnitude 3. hole 4. loss 5. mobility||a. the speed at which something happens over a period of time. b. the great size or importance of something c. an empty space in something solid. d. the fact of no longer having something, or of having less of it than you used to have, or the process by which this happens e. the ability to move easily|
16. Summarize the text “Electrons and holes” in 150 words.
In pairs ask and answer text-based questions.
· What will occur if the temperature of the crystal rises above absolute zero?
· Can you explain what takes place in an atom when one electron frees itself from a covalent bond?
· Is the hole able to attract electrons?
· What can you say about the process of recombination?
· Can you say anything about the rate of recombination?
· And the total number of free electrons and holes is constant, isn’t it?
18. Divide into 2 groups. Group 1 translates Extract A and group 2 – Extract B of the text “Supernovae” with a dictionary in writing.
A supernova (the plural is supernovae) is the explosion of a star. They are extremely important for understanding our Galaxy. They heat up the interstellar medium, distribute heavy elements throughout the Galaxy, and accelerate cosmic rays. But what causes a star to explode? And is there more than one type of supernova? Indeed, there seems to be two distinct types of supernovae – those which occur for a single massive star and those which occur because of mass transfer onto a white dwarf in a binary system. As you will see, however, it is only what gets the process started toward the explosion which differs between the two types.
Stars which are 8 times or more massive than our Sun end their lives in a most spectacular way; they go supernova. A supernova explosion occurs when there is no longer enough fuel for the fusion process in the core of the star to create an outward pressure which combats the inward gravitational pull of the star's great mass. First, the star swells into a red supergiant...at least on the outside. On the inside, the core yields to gravity and begins shrinking. As it shrinks, it grows hotter and denser. A new series of nuclear reactions begin to occur, temporarily halting the collapse of the core. But alas, it is only temporary.
When the core contains essentially just iron, it has nothing left to fuse. Fusion in the core ceases. In less than a second, the star begins the final phase of gravitational collapse. The core temperature rises to over 100 billion degrees as the iron atoms are crushed together. The repulsive force between the nuclei is overcome by the force of gravity. So the core compresses but then recoils. The energy of the recoil is transferred to the envelope of the star, which then explodes and produces a shock wave. The shock then propels that matter out into space. The material that is exploded away from the star is now known as a supernova remnant. Another type of supernova involves the sudden explosion of a white dwarf star in a binary star system. A white dwarf is the endpoint for stars of up to about 8 times that of the Sun. The remaining white dwarf has a mass less than 1.4 times the mass of the Sun, and is about the size of the Earth. In a binary star system, the companion star of the white dwarf is often a red giant. The stars may be close enough to each other and the red giant large enough, that material may flow from the red giant onto the white dwarf. This results in a thermonuclear detonation of the entire star.
19. In Russian write acontent-based summary of the text you have translated.
20. Translate into English the summary made in ex.19 of the text you haven’t read.
21. Make a reverse written translation (from Russian into English) of the extract you have translated.
22. Serve as simultaneous interpreter. Make an oral reverse interpretation of the text.
23. Prepare a paragraph discussing the following question: ‘Will a Nearby Supernova Endanger Life on Earth?’
24. Find more information about Supernova and tell your group mates.
|The Movement of Holes|
Present Perfect Active (I have patented)
· Scientists and engineers have recently developed and introduced a whole range of important inventions.
· Look! A hole has appeared at point A.
· We haven’t received perfect results in these tests.
· The inventor hasn’t introduced his innovation yet.
· Has an electron freed itself yet?
Present Perfect Passive (measurements have been done)
· A synthetic diamond has already been created in the laboratory by Belarusian scientists.
· Unfortunately some technical devices haven’t been patented yet.
· Has hadron collider been started?
· Have covalent bonds been broken?
1. Fill in the table.
|analog||be analogous (to), have analogy (to, with)||analogous||аналог||[q′nxlqg]|
2. Fill in the gaps using the following verbs: break, free, move, come, occur, appear.
|Fig. 1. A hole has appeared at point A||- Figure 1 shows a part of a silicon crystal in which the breaking of covalent bonds is taking place. - Was this caused by heating? - Yes, by heating. In Figure 1 it is shown that one covalent bond … and an electron … itself. A hole … at point A.|
|- Will you be able to explain what is taking place in the next figure (Fig. 2)? - Yes, of course. A hole … at point B and now two electrons can move through the crystal.||Fig.2. A hole has appeared at point B.|
|Fig. 3. Hole A has disappeared and hole C has appeared||- Look at Fig. 3. The second electron … close enough to the first hole and is attracted by its electric field. Recombination … . Now there is no hole already at point A. But still there is a hole at point B. It seems that the hple… from position A to position B. - Looking at this figure, it becomes clear that one more hole … at point C.|
|- As shown in Fig.4 the third free electron … through the crystal lattice. Again recombination … and a hole … . The effect is as though a hole … from point A to point C.||Fig. 4. Hole B has disappeared|
3. Make up sentences using Present Perfect. Use the prompts in brackets. Mind the position of just/already/yet.
How have you decreased the capacitance of your system?
I have just connected equal capacitors in series.
1. Can we observe any changes in the movement of electrons and holes?
Of course, we can, but …
2. Could you stop the movement of holes quite fast?
(I/just/heat/a peace of silicon)
3. Have you already changed the random character of the movement of holes in a piece of germanium?
4. Do you consider me an expert in the problem of the movement of holes?
(I/already/consider/a lot of/important/things/but not all)
5. Could you increase the amplification factor of our circuit?
(I/already/replace/a triode/for a tetrode)
4. Open the brackets and complete the dialogues with just, already, yet. Use Passive Voice where nessesary.
1. A: How do we call the phenomenon of attracting an electron by electric field?
B: Don’t you know that the scientists … (call) this process recombination?
2. A: I learned about the intrinsic conduction yesterday .
B: Yes, but you … (not/consider) in what types of materials it takes place.
3. A: Do we have a method to divide the flow of electrons and holes?
B: I … (do) this by means of applying voltage.
4. A: There is no sense to look for different ways of controlling the increase of temperature in a triode. How do you think, why?
B: I think, because a termometer scale … (invent).
5. You are asking students questions about things they have done. Make questions with ever using the words in brackets.
(know/physicist?) Have you ever known a famous physicist personally?
1. (observe/phenomenon of recombination?)
5. (take part/scientific conference?)
6. Complete the sentences using today/this year/this month etc. + Present Perfect.
For example: There was a relatively high rate of recombination in the prototype yesterday, but it hasn’t recovered the old level today.
1. Some centuries ago scientists didn’t have enough information about the nature of intrinsic conduction, but … .
2. The invention of hydrogen and nuclear bombs in the XX century made people all over the world be afraid for their lives, but due to common efforts of politicians ….
3. After the Stone Age of B.C. era we all observe the phenomenon of global warming, which ….
4. The plant “Horizont” had a severe setback in production in the beginning of the nineties, but … .
5. In 1975 our faculty wasn’t able to trainprepare experts in the sphere of aero space technologies, but … .
7. Read the situations and write sentences using the example.
John is working with the Internet Explorer at the moment and looks like a novice in this business.
You: Have you ever worked with the Internet Explorer?
John: No, but I’ve already learnt the most important rules about this program.
1. Ann is trying to take the temperature of the device with the help of a Centigrade thermometer. But she is using it in a wrong way.
2. Peter starts putting on a spacesuit for working in the open space. But it seems to you, that he has forgotten some important parts of the suit.
3. Greg wants to observe the constellation of Orion, but can’t adapt the telescope.
4. Alexandra got the task to increase the conductivity of a piece of germanium. She cooled it.
8. Rewrite these sentences into Passive Voice.
1. The Germans have recently integrated chips with all important biometrical data in the passports of citizens.
2. Japanese scientists have just presented a few generations of robot-humanoid in Tokyo and other technological centers of this country.
3. The fans are furious. FIFA hasn’t introduced the technology based on chips integrated into a ball and sensors into a gate.
4. Real games haven’t fully exchanged tetris for another game.
5. Mobile operator Life has already introduced 3G Internet technology.
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|In Russian write a content-based summary of the text you have translated.|||||Make sentences from the words in brackets using the Present Perfect Passive.|