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Key recovery

A mechanism for retrieving cryptographic keys with the ultimate intent ofdecrypting ciphertext with them.

Key splitting

A process for dividing portions of a single key between multiple parties, none havingthe ability to reconstruct the whole key.

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)

A simple protocol that supports access and search operations on directories containinginformation such as names, phone numbers, and addresses across otherwiseincompatible systems over the Internet.

MAA (Message Authenticator Algorithm)

An ISO standard that produces a 32-bit hash, designed for IBM mainframes.

MAC (Message Authentication Code)

The symmetric-key equivalent of a digital signature. MACs do not hide data, butthey let someone who knows the key know whether it has been modified.

MD2 (Message Digest 2)

128-bit, one-way hash function designed by Ron Rivest, dependent on a randompermutation of bytes.

MD4 (Message Digest 4)

128-bit, one-way hash function designed by Ron Rivest, using a simple set of bitmanipulations on 32-bit operands.

MD5 (Message Digest 5)

Improved, more complex version of MD4, but still a 128-bit, one-way hash function.

Message digest

A number that is derived from a message. Change a single character in the messageand the message will have a different message digest.

MIC (Message Integrity Check)

Originally defined in PEM for authentication using MD2 or MD5. Micalg (messageintegrity calculation) is used in secure MIME implementations.

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)

A freely available set of specifications that offers a way to interchange text in languageswith different character sets, and multimedia email among many differentcomputer systems that use Internet mail standards.

MMB (Modular Multiplication-based Block)

Based on IDEA, Joan Daemen developed this 128-bit key/128-bit block size symmetricalgorithm, not used because of its susceptibility to linear cryptanalysis.

MOSS (MIME Object Security Service)

Defined in RFC 1848, it facilitates encryption and signature services for MIME,including key management based on asymmetric techniques (not widely used).

MSP (Message Security Protocol)

The military equivalent of PEM, an X.400-compatible application level protocolfor securing e-mail, developed by the NSA in late 1980.

MTI

A one-pass key agreement protocol by Matsumoto, Takashima, and Imai that providesmutual key authentication without key confirmation or entity authentication.


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