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AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

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The US government standard for the algorithm to replace the older DES. Thiswas an open competition, and the selected algorithm was Rijndael (q.v.). The AEShas 16-byte blocks and can operate with 128, 192, or 256-bit keys.

AKEP (Authentication Key Exchange Protocol)

Key transport based on symmetric encryption allowing two parties to exchange ashared secret key, secure against passive adversaries.

Algorithm (encryption)

A set of mathematical rules (logic) used in the processes of encryption and decryption.

Algorithm (hash)

A set of mathematical rules (logic) used in the processes of message digest creationand key/signature generation.


Of unknown or undeclared origin or authorship, concealing an entity’s identification.

ANSI (American National Standards Institute)

Develops standards through various Accredited Standards Committees (ASC).The X9 committee focuses on security standards for the financial services industry.

API (Application Programming Interface)

Provides the means to take advantage of software features, allowing dissimilar softwareproducts to interact upon one another.

ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation One)

ISO/IEC standard for encoding rules used in ANSI X.509 certificates, two typesexist - DER (Distinguished Encoding Rules) and BER (Basic Encoding Rules).

Asymmetric keys

A separate but integrated user key-pair, comprised of one public key and one privatekey. Each key is one way, meaning that a key used to encrypt information cannot be used to decrypt the same data.


The process of demonstrating an entity is what it claims to be.

Authorization certificate

An electronic document to prove one’s access or privilege rights, also to prove oneis who they say they are.


The process of determining what an entity is allowed to do.

Blind signature

Ability to sign documents without knowledge of content, similar to a notary public.

Block cipher

A symmetric cipher operating on blocks of plain text and cipher text, usually 64 or128 bits.


A 64-bit block symmetric cipher consisting of key expansion and data encryption.A fast, simple, and compact algorithm in the public domain written by BruceSchneier.

CA (Certificate Authority)

A trusted third party (TTP) who creates certificates that consist of assertions onvarious attributes and binds them to an entity and/or to their public key.

CAPI (Crypto API)

Microsoft’s crypto API for Windows-based operating systems and applications.

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