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An NSA-developed cryptographic chip that implements a US government KeyEscrow capability.

CBC (Cipher Block Chaining)

The process of having plain text XORed with the previous cipher text blockbefore it is encrypted, thus adding a feedback mechanism to a block cipher.

CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team)

Security clearinghouse that promotes security awareness. CERT provides 24-hourtechnical assistance for computer and network security incidents. CERT is locatedat the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh,PA.

Certificate (digital certificate)

An electronic document consisting of a public key, information about the key’sholder, and a digital signature binding the key and information together. It is adocument that states the signer’s belief that the information and the key belongtogether. Binding names, email addresses, etc. to a key creates an Identity Certificate.

CFM (Cipher Feedback Mode)

A block cipher that has been implemented as a self-synchronizing stream cipher.

CDSA (Common Data Security Architecture)

Intel Architecture Labs (IAL) developed this framework to address the data securityproblems inherent to Internet and Intranet for use in Intel and others’ Internetproducts.


Endorsement of information by a trusted entity.


The output of a cipher. The cipher starts with plaintext (q.v), and uses a key (q.v)to create ciphertext.


The act of keeping something private and secret from all but those who are authorizedto see it.


Persistent Client State HTTP Cookie—a file or token of sorts, that is passed fromthe web server to the web client (your browser) that is used to identify you andcould record personal information such as ID and password, mailing address,credit card number, and other information.


Something that provides a basis for credit or confidence.

CRL (Certificate Revocation List)

An online, up-to-date list of previously issued certificates that are no longer valid.


Two or more organizations or Certificate Authorities that share some level oftrust.


The reverse of cryptography, cryptanalysis is the art and science of breakingciphers, ciphertexts, or keys.


Also known as PKCS#11, this is a standard API for using cryptographic tokensincluding smart cards and accelerators.

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AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)| Cryptography

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