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Communicative & structural types of sentences

THE REFLEXIVE VOICE. NON-TRADITIONAL VOICES. | CLAUSE-SENTENCE-UTTERANCE-LOGICAL PROPOSITION | CATEGORY OF MODALITY IN THE SENTENCE | STATIVES | THE CATEGORY OF MOOD. INDICATIVE. IMPERATIVE. | Grammatical categories of the verb | THE VERB – MEANING, FORM, FUNCTION. PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. | The Theory of parts of speech in prenormative &classical gr-s. | The theory of parts of speech in American Descriptive Grammar. | The Theory of Progress, the Functional Theory. |

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I. Structural approach. Acc to it the 1st stage s-ce are subdivided into

- simple →one-member: nominal (Fire!) and verbal (Do it!)

→two-member: complete (When are you going?) and incomplete or elliptical (To the cinema.)

- composite → compound and complex;

II. Acc. to the purpose of utterance;

- declarative→ negative and affirmative (their purpose is that they express a statement giving information;

- interrogative s-ces (their purpose of utterance is to obtain information, to ask for infor.→ they can be subdivided into verifying questions in which case the speaker has already got some infor. And wants to know whether the infor. Is true or false. Ex. Is it Potapov Street? In this case we use general?-s→ verifying?-s. Identifying?-s→ a certain part of infor. Is missing and the person wants to know it. Ex. where do you live? Who are you going to the country with? (special, alternative?-s).

- Imperative s-ces. Their purpose is to make an addressee perform a certain action.- inducement (побуждение).

- Exclamatory s-ces. Their purpose is to express the speaker’s emotional state. Ex What a lovely day! Some scholars, however, think that emotional s-ces should not be treated as a special type but they should be included into a Noun of statements because their main purpose is also to give infor.

These 4 types of s-ces differ one from another in their following features: word order (Is it room 25?), the use of auxiliaries (Do you smoke? Don’t do it), the use of special interrogative words (who, when, which, why), a special syntactic structure (in imperative no subj.-, intonation (↓,↑).


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