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A) Pair off the units with the similar meaning. Give your grounds.

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  1. A Have a conversation similar to those on the recording.
  2. Ex 2 Identify grammatical ways of translation of the units underlined.
  3. Ex 3 Identify grammatical ways of translation of the units underlined.
  4. Ex 4 Identify grammatical ways of translation of the units underlined.
  5. Ex 5 Identify grammatical ways of translation of the units underlined.
  6. Ex. 21. Compose the similar dialogues.
  1. know something backwards and forwards
  2. one’s heart's not in it
  3. do everything by the book
  4. be lukewarm
  5. learn the ropes
  6. toe the line

(b) Fill in the gaps with the units from (a) introducing all the necessary changes.

  1. I really loved teaching at first but ………………………….any more.
  2. You ………………or you don't stay on the team!
  3. My Academic advisor is very straight - he …………………….
  4. I started compiling an annotated bibliography of the philosophy of mind when I was a graduate student ……………………..
  5. Senior students …………………. about the prospects of showing the freshmen around the campus.
  6. She practiced her part until she……………...

6 (a) Read Hints on Public speaking

How to make a high impact public speech?

People have gathered to hear you speak on a specific issue, and they expect to get something out of it immediately. Most speeches invite audiences to react in one of three ways: feeling, thinking, or acting. For example, eulogies encourage emotional response from the audience; college lectures stimulate listeners to think about a topic from a different perspective; student activists speaking in the Pit recommend actions the audience can take.

Get their attention, otherwise known as "The Hook". Appealing to your audience on a personal level captures their attention and concern. Speakers often begin with anecdotes to hook their audience's attention. Other methods include presenting shocking statistics, asking direct questions of the audience, or enlisting audience participation.

For example: "I'm here today to talk to you about three issues that threaten our educational system: First, … Second, … Third,"

Rely on shorter, simpler sentence structures.

Incorporate the rhetorical strategies of ethos, pathos, and logos

When arguing a point, using ethos, pathos, and logos can help convince your audience believe you and make your argument stronger. Ethos refers to an appeal to your audience by establishing your authenticity and trustworthiness as a speaker. If you employ pathos, you appeal to your audience's emotions. Use of logos includes the support of hard facts, statistics, and logical argumentation. The most effective speeches usually present a combination these rhetorical strategies.

Restate your main points, but don't repeat them

For example:

"I asked earlier why we should care about the rain forest. Now I hope it's clear that . . ."

(b) Consider extracts from a speech. what rhetorical techniques are employed? What do you know about the speaker?

Commencement address at Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts USA
June 7, 2007 by Bill Gates

President Bok, former President Rudenstine, incoming President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, members of the faculty, parents, and especially, the graduates…

I want to thank Harvard for this timely honor…

I applaud the graduates today for taking a much more direct route to your degrees. For my part, I'm just happy that the Crimson has called me "Harvard's most successful dropout." I guess that makes me valedictorian of my own special class I did the best of everyone who failed…

Harvard was just a phenomenal experience for me. Academic life was fascinating. I used to sit in on lots of classes I hadn't even signed up for. And dorm life was terrific. I lived up at Radcliffe, in Currier House. There were always lots of people in my dorm room late at night discussing things, because everyone knew I didn't worry about getting up in the morning. That's how I came to be the leader of the anti-social group. We clung to each other as a way of validating our rejection of all those social people…

What I remember above all about Harvard was being in the midst of so much energy and intelligence. It could be exhilarating, intimidating, sometimes even discouraging, but always challenging. It was an amazing privilege-and though I left early, I was transformed by my years at Harvard, the friendships I made, and the ideas I worked on.

Members of the Harvard Family: Here in the Yard is one of the great collections of intellectual talent in the world…

There is no question that the faculty, the alumni, the students, and the benefactors of Harvard have used their power to improve the lives of people here and around the world. But can we do more? Can Harvard dedicate its intellect to improving the lives of people who will never even hear its name?

Let me make a request of the deans and the professors-the intellectual leaders here at Harvard: As you hire new faculty, award tenure, review curriculum, and determine degree requirements, please ask yourselves:



Should our best minds be dedicated to solving our biggest problems?

These are not rhetorical questions-you will answer with your policies…


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Читайте в этой же книге: Chapter Thirteen | Chapter Fourteen | Chapter Fifteen | Chapter Sixteen | II. Read the text with an eye for the vocabulary units in bold; come up with their explanations and translations. | By Thomas Shepard, 1672 | Build all the possible connections between the nouns and the surrounding verbs. | A) Match the idioms with their definitions. | Choose A or B according to the meaning of the idiom in bold | The Fulbright Program |
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