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Language study

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  7. A) Study this list of proper adjectives.

deals with/is concerned with

Column A lists a branch of engineering, column B lists things they are concerned with.


mechanical machines

electrical electricity


We can show the link between them in a number of ways:


1. Mechanical engineering deals with machines.

2. Mechanical engineers deal with machines.

3. Mechanical engineering is concerned with machines.

4. Mechanical engineers are concerned with machines.

5. Machines are the concern of mechanical engineers.


Task 3

Match each item in column A with an appropriate item from column B and link the two in the sentence.


1 marine

2 aeronautical

3 heating and ventilating

4 electricity generating

5 automobile

6 civil

7 electronic

8 electrical installation

9 medical



a air-conditioning

b roads and bridges

c body scanners

d cables and switch gear

e communications and equipment

f ships

g planes

h cars and trucks

i power station


Task 4

Fill in the gaps in the following description of the different branches of engineering using the information from the text and language you have studied in this unit.


The main branches of engineering are civil, ___1___, ___2___, chemical and aerospace. Mechanical engineering is __3____ ___4___machinery of all kinds. This branch of engineering includes ___5___, automobile, ___6___, and heating and ventilating. The first three are concerned with transport: ___7___, cars and planes. The last ___8___ with air-conditioning, refrigeration, etc.

Electrical engineering deals with ___9___ from generation to use. Electricity generating is concerned with ___10___stations. Electrical installation deals ___11___ cables, switchgear, and connecting up electrical equipment.

Two branches of engineering include both ___12___ and ___13___ engineering. These are mining and ___14____ engineering. The former deals with mines and mining equipment, the latter with hospital ___15___ of all kinds.


Reading II (for gist )

Task 5

Read the text and say if the sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones:

1) “Engineering” is the name of the profession of an engineer.

2) The term “engineering” originally referred to military engines.

3) Civil engineering was a discipline studying the construction of non-military projects.

4) William Gilbert was the inventor of the electric motor.

5) Industrial revolution began at the end of the 17th century with the invention of the steam engine.

6) The need for large scale production of chemicals gave rise to development of chemical engineering.

7) Aeronautical engineering dates back to early times.



Engineering is the science, discipline, art and profession of acquiring and applying technical, scientific and mathematical knowledge to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that safely realize a desired objective or inventions.



The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. The term engineering itself has a much more recent etymology, deriving from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1325, when an engineer (literally, one who operates an engine) originally referred to a constructor of military engines.


Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings matured as a technical discipline, the term Civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the older discipline of military engineering.


The first electrical engineer is considered to be William Gilbert, with his 1600 publication of De Magnete, who was the originator of the term "electricity". Electrical Engineering can trace its origins in the experiments of Alessandro Volta in the 1800s, the experiments of Michael Faraday, Georg Ohm and others and the invention of the electric motor in 1872.


The work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of Electronics. The later inventions of the vacuum tube and the transistor further accelerated the development of Electronics to such an extent that electrical and electronics engineers currently outnumber their colleagues of any other Engineering specialty.


The first steam engine was built in 1698 by mechanical engineer Thomas Savery. The development of this device gave rise to the industrial revolution in the coming decades, allowing for the beginnings of mass production. The inventions of Thomas Savery and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to modern Mechanical Engineering. The development of specialized machines and their maintenance tools during the industrial revolution led to the rapid growth of Mechanical Engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad.


Chemical Engineering developed in the nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution. Industrial scale manufacturing demanded new materials and new processes and by 1880 the need for large scale production of chemicals was such that a new industry was created. The role of the chemical engineer was the design of these chemical plants and processes.


Aeronautical Engineering deals with aircraft design while Aerospace Engineering is a more modern term. Its origins can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the turn of the century from the 19th century to the 20th. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering.

Only a decade after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1920s saw extensive development of aeronautical engineering through development of World War I military aircraft.

Task 6

Answer the questions on the text:

1) What does the term “engineering” mean?

2) What etymology does the term have?

3) Which technical discipline developed with the progress in design of bridges and buildings?

4) When did the Electrical Engineering start?

5) Whose inventions accelerated the development of Electronics?

6) What factors promoted the development of Mechanical Engineering?

7) What branches of engineering developed during Industrial Revolution?


Task 7

Find sentences in which the following words and word combinations are used and translate them into Russian:

to derive from

to date back to

to refer to

to distinguish between

to be involved in

to trace origins

to give rise to

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