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A law – it is connection between the phenomena: general, objective, substantial and necessary. There are 3 laws of dialectics, we will study them on the next lecture.

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1) Law of mutual transition of quantitative changes in qualitative ones.

2) Law of unity and fight of oppositions.

3) Law of negation of negation.

III- 1. categories of philosophy - are not only 1) reflection of general connections of being and cognition, but also are 2) the forms of thought and 3) are “steps” of cognition. Categories — are the forms of awareness in notions of general methods of human’s relations to the world.

Philosophy explicates a category schemes from the real structures of thought. However, the basis of categories is made the development of methods of objective human activity, instead of only the bare activity of spirit.

A real studying of categories – is the awareness of that, how we are thinking, how our thought is built and will get organized”.

III – 2. But there is a materialistic look and interpretation of categories yet. "Before a/ the man there is the network of the phenomena of nature, - writes V. Lenin. – the Instinctive man, a savage does not differ himself from nature. A conscious man differs categories, essence of stepsof separation, i.e. of cognition of world, key points in the network, which help to cognize it and master by it (FSW, V. 29, P. 85 ).

Why have most categories a paired look ?

III – 3. We go off from the 2 types of connections, we WRITE: 1) fixing the building, organization - that is structural connections, or horizontal, we WRITE on the left:

A Single – a general A Plural - an unique A Similarity – a difference A Simple – a complex A Part – a whole A finite – an endless unfinite A Form – a content An element - a system - a structure. and 2) - determinative connections or vertical collateral subordination, An occurrence an essence (phenomenon) A case an effect A Possibility a reality A chance a necessity (A fortuitousness)

Home Task: to give an answer for such problem questions:

part - whole: • what is the secret of integrity in? Is it possible on any part to give a conclusion about whole?

· what are basic types of integrity ?

Element – system – structure:

· Sinergetica about the system, element, structure (caf. textbook P. 2. p. 4): articles Ф.Н. 1991 № 6 Рузавин, В. ф. 1992; № 12. Князева, Курдюмов).

Form – maintenance: • is it possible Form without maintenance ?

• Their interinfluence: what is determining from them form or maintenance?

• In what we can see their relative independence one from another?

Occurrence - essence:

• does essence always turn out in the occurrence (phenomenon) ?

• are there such essences which would not show itself in anything ?

• What are “visibility”= outward appearance and “seemary” / “imaginary” ?

Possibility – reality:

• What is transition of possibility in reality founded on?

• Probability and statistical regularity?

Chance (fortuitousness) – necessity:

• Comment on a phrase: “science is the enemy of chances (fortuitousness)”.

• intertransition of necessity and chance?

  Dialectics Metaphysics  
  1.method of philosophising  
  Sophiyniy = as an aspiration to wisdom epistemic (that is intellectual-contemplative or speculative interpretation).  
  2. object of consideration (what?).  
  Phenomena, processes, relations, transitions casual accumulation of objects and states  
  3. the method of consideration (how?)  
  Interdependently and comprehensively, all-sided Apart, by oneself, one-sided. If there is interconnection even, it is without correlation. The separate absolutizes here on a harm to whole .  
  4. basic idea.  
  Change, complex many-sided development invariability, or – primitive, simplified development.  
  5. source of development  
  self-contradictions = unity and fight of oppositions the external influencing or external force  
  6. result and orientation of development  


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