I. Use the following words and phrases in sentences of your own:
to bevel, side tool, facing, roughing tools, to grind, to rough, speed, finishing tool, to provide, to adjust, to set, single-point cutting tools, turning tools, effective cutting edges, tip, shank
II. Use these verbs in the past participle form and make up sentences using past participles as attributes.
to grind, to turn, to form, to cut, to temper, to harden, to provide
III. Underline the suffixes and prefixes and translate into Russian the following group of words of the same stem:
to adjust, adjustable, adjusting, adjustment; to continue, continual, continuance, continuation, discontinuation, discontinuance, to discontinue; to divide, divided, division, divisional, divisor, to subdivide, subdivisible, subdivision
IV Choose synonymical groups out of the following list:
to sharpen, to undergo, to understand, precise, accuracy, to realize, to complete, to start, to subject, to finish, to begin, accurate, to clamp, precision, to squeeze, to grind
V. Change the following sentences, using the subordinate clause instead of participle phrases. Translate the sentences info Russian:
Example: Cutting tools used for various metal-cutting operations have quite a wide range of shapes.
Cutting tools which arc used for various metal-cutting operations have quite a wide range of shapes.
1. The number and types of cutting tools used in practice are very large. 2. Tools designed to take heavy roughing cuts are known as roughing tools. 3. Milling cutters have several cutting edges giving the cutter the advantage of cutting. 4. Each blade of the milling cutter is a single-point cutter provided with proper rake and clearance angles. 5. The cutting angle is determined by the physical characteristics of the material being machined. 6. A high cutting speed, a small chip thickness and a large rake angle are factors facilitating the flow of the chip over the face of the tool. 7. Different kinds of cutting tools are used for metal-cutting processes depending upon the kind of metal being cut. 8. The elements of a single-point tool used for turning operations are shown in Fig. 20.
VI. State the kinds of subordinate clauses in the following sentences and translate them info Russian:
1. The distance that the tool is set into the work for cutting operations is referred to as the depth of cut. 2. Metals may be so strong that it is difficult to produce a tool capable of cutting off the chip without frequent failures. 3. If the metal to be cut is soft, the top rake of the tool is decreased.4. When a tool cuts metal a force is exerted on its face by the material pushed ahead, and a friction force is set up along the face of the tool by a sliding chip. 5. If the tool were not ground correctly, it would not cut freely. 6. The basic principle of design employed in
making single-point cutting tools is the wedge which can be modified in accordance with requirements.
VII. Translate the following sentences into English using different ways of expressing obligation:
1. Все резцы, в зависимости от типа машины, на которой они используются, нужно подразделять на токарные, фрезерные, строгальные и другие. 2. Для того чтобы продлить работу режущего инструмента, следует правильно выбирать скорость резания. 3. Угол заточки инструмента должен меняться в зависимости от материала обрабатываемой детали. 4. Инструмент, который нужно затачивать и устанавливать в определенное положение в автоматическом станке, следует насаживать с меньшей силой, чем обдирочный резец. 5. Режущие инструменты могут затачиваться до тех пор, пока не останется маленькая полоска режущей кромки, и все же их можно еще использовать для резки материала.
VIII. Give different meanings of the words proper, to make, one, for, above, more, that. Give some examples of their use.
IX. Make up questions to which the italicized words are the answers:
1. On solid tools it is necessary to grind the top rake in the tool. 2. To turn cast-iron it is necessary to set the tool above centre. 3. The tool is ground with the slide clearance to prevent the dragging of the tool on the shoulder formed by the cut. 4. If the surface of the work being machined is too great, the cutting edge will be worn too rapidly. 5. Roughing tools are applied for roughing or removing excessive metal from the work. 6. To prevent the breakage of the cutting edge of a necking tool, the height of the head is made several times larger than the width of the cutting edge.
X. (a) Read and translate the following text without using a dictionary:
Lathe tools are made of carbon steel, high speed steel up and alloys such as stellite and cemented carbide. The stellite and cemented carbide tools are becoming more generally used as their cost is reduced. There are but few carbon steel tools used1, the general practice is to use high-speed tool bits in holders. One should determine the kind of tool to be ground, as carbon and high-speed steel require different treatment. Tools should be marked to show the kind of material from which they are made. To ensure the proper operation of a lathe the cutting tools should be ground by hand or machine. In machine grinding the tool is supported rigidly in a chuck or holder and ground semi-automatically to the desired rake and relief or clearance angles. In grinding by hand, the tool should be supported on the work rest and moved back and forth across the entire face of the grinding wheel. The accuracy of a tool ground by hand depends almost entirely on the skill of the operator.
1. there are but few carbon steel tools used – применяются лишь немногие резцы из углеродистой стали
(b) Answer the following questions:
1. What steel are lathe tools made of? 2. Why should one determine the kind of tool to be ground? 3. How should the cutting tools be ground to ensure the proper operation of a lathe?
XI. Giving answers to the following questions describe the construction of the cutting tool in Fig. 19 and the angles to which a cutting tool shown in Fig. 20 should be ground, and clamping the tool in a tool holder in Fig. 21:
1. What parts does a cutting tool consist of? 2. What is the shank of the cutting tool used for? 3. What is the synonym for the word "cutting edge"? 4. By what means can the cutting tip of a tool be ground? 5. To what angles should the tip of the cutting tool be ground? 6. What do the shape of a tool as well as its rake and clearance angles depend upon? 7. How can the top rake be varied? 8. What does the top rake depend on? 9. How does the side rake vary for soft material and for steel? 10. What does the front clearance depend on? 11. What action would be performed by the tool if it were ground square without any front clearance? 12. Why is the tool ground with a side clearance? 13. How should the tool be clamped in the tool holder before starting the cutting operation?
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